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   muzzleloadingshow
  The public is invited to attend a Muzzleloading and Accoutrements Trade Show featuring artisans who specialize in 18th century firearms including: Indian Quillwork, Knives, Axes, Guns, Powder Horns, Accoutrements, Bags, and Frontier Art. Many of the artisans are Contemporary Longrifle Association (CLA) members including: Greg Bray, Pat Davis, William “Wild Willy” Frankfort, Joe Scott, Bill Schneider, and other vendors including Keith Casteel, Ed Rayl, Marty Ewing and Rob Gorrell.
       The event takes place February 21 to 23, 2014. Public hours are Friday 1 to 6 pm, Saturday 9 am to 5 pm, Sunday 9 am to 3 pm. A $3 admission will be collected at the door with proceeds to benefit the Pricketts Fort Memorial Foundation.

Prickett’s Fort State Park is located 2 miles off I-79 at exit 139 in Fairmont, West Virginia. For more information about this or other events visit www.prickettsfort.org or contact (304) 363-3030.

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Join us for a unique shopping experience in a historic environment. Artisans will demonstrate and feature works for sale in the Fort’s Visitor Center, as well as the historic area. Enjoy hot wassail and period decorations in the historic fort. Shoppers will not be charged to enter the historic area, but a guided, historic tour will be offered by costumed interpreters for visitors on a set schedule for half-price admission.

The Market will run from December 6-8, Friday and Saturday from 10am to 4pm, and Sunday from 12 noon to 4pm.

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earlydaysinthebackcountry
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On this date, October 9 . . .

1755:: George Croghan writes from Aughwick to Charles Swaine at Shippensburg that a friendly Indian, coming from the Ohio, warned him that one hundred and sixty Indians were ready to set out for the Pennsylvania settlements. This Indian gave it as his opinion that these Indians would attack the Province as soon as they could persuade the Indians on the Susquehanna to join them. Writes Croghan: “He desires me, as soon as I see the Indians remove from Susquehanna back to Ohio, to shift my quarters, for he says that the French will, if possible, lay all the back frontiers in ruins this Winter.” In a postscript to this letter, Croghan asks for guns and powder, and says that he is building a stockade, which he expects to complete by the middle of the next week.

~~~
Source:

Sipe, C. Hale. THE INDIAN WARS OF PENNSYLVANIA. (Telegraph Press, 1929).

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festivalcorn

Pricketts Fort will host a Harvest Festival this weekend, October 12-13 (Saturday 10am to 4pm
& Sunday 12 noon to 4pm). The festival will focus on 18th century foods through demonstrations and displays about wild game, food production, harvest, preservation, cooking, customs and manners.

Inside the Visitors Center, antiques vendors will be hawking their wares.

Regular admission is required for the historic attractions and festival.

For more information call the office at (304)363-3030.

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earlydaysinthebackcountry
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On this date, October 6 . . .

1764: Bouquet’s Expedition of 1764, (continued): (see Oct 5). Bouquet’s army crosses the Beaver River, taking the Indian trail which leads to the villages on the Tuscarawas, crossing the headwaters of Little Beaver and Yellow creeks.

~~~
Source:

Sipe, C. Hale. THE INDIAN WARS OF PENNSYLVANIA. (Telegraph Press, 1929).

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earlydaysinthebackcountry
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On this date, October 5 . . .

1764: Bouquet’s Expedition of 1764, (continued): (see Oct 4). Bouquet’s army passes through Logstown, which is deserted.

~~~
Source:

Sipe, C. Hale. THE INDIAN WARS OF PENNSYLVANIA. (Telegraph Press, 1929).

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earlydaysinthebackcountry
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On this date, October 4 . . .

1764: Bouquet’s Expedition of 1764, (continued): (see Oct 1). The Virginia troops having arrived and Bouquet now having
an army of about fifteen hundred men, the march is started westward from Fort Pitt on October 4th, the Virginia troops leading the way.

1790: General Harmar’s Defeat (continued). Harmar’s army takes up the march from Turkey Creek (see October 3) towards the Indian towns on the Maumee and its tributaries, the St. Joseph and the St. Mary. The principal town Harmar intends to attack is the Miami town, called Kekionga, or Omee, located where the city of Fort Wayne, Indiana, now stands.

~~~
Source:

Sipe, C. Hale. THE INDIAN WARS OF PENNSYLVANIA. (Telegraph Press, 1929).

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earlydaysinthebackcountry
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On this date, October 3 . . .

1790: General Harmar’s Defeat (continued). Having left Fort Washington three days before (see Sept 30), General Harmar joins Colonel John Hardin at Turkey Creek.

~~~
Source:

Sipe, C. Hale. THE INDIAN WARS OF PENNSYLVANIA. (Telegraph Press, 1929).

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earlydaysinthebackcountry
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On this date, October 1 . . .

1764: Bouquet’s Expedition of 1764, (continued): (see Sept 17) On October 1st, two Six Nation warriors came to Fort Pitt, and endeavored to persuade the commander not to march into the Indian country, owing to the smallness of his force and the lateness of the season. Believing that these warriors were actuated by a desire simply to retard the expedition. Bouquet sent them to inform the Delawares and Shawnees that he proposed to move immediately into their country to chastise them unless they should speedily agree to whatever conditions of peace he should impose upon them.

1778: General McIntosh’s Expedition against the Tuscarawas: The plan of General Mcintosh for the protection of the western frontier was to capture Detroit. Immediately after the treaty with the Delawares, he began preparations for an expedition against this place. About October 1st, 1778, his army of thirteen hundred troops, five hundred of whom were regulars of the Eighth Pennsylvania Regiment and the Thirteenth Virginia Regiment, went from Fort Pitt down the Ohio to the mouth of the Beaver, where four weeks were spent in erecting Fort Mcintosh, located on the high bluff overlooking the Ohio, at the site of the present town of Beaver.

~~~
Source:

Sipe, C. Hale. THE INDIAN WARS OF PENNSYLVANIA. (Telegraph Press, 1929).

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earlydaysinthebackcountry
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On this date, September 30 . . .

1790: General Harmar’s Defeat. Realizing that the only way to put a stop to the Indian raids from Ohio into Western Pennsylvania, was to carry the war into their country, the Federal Government sent troops down the Ohio in the summer and autumn of 1789, and erected Fort Washington, where Cincinnatti now stands. General Josiah Harmar arrived at that place on December 29th, with three hundred regular troops, and took command. Leaving Fort Washington with one hundred regulars, he joined General Scott with two hundred and thirty Kentucky volunteers, and marched into the Scioto country, but was unable to engage the Indians in battle, as they abandoned their villages and fled. The troops then returned to Fort Washington, having accomplished nothing definite.
~~~ The Indians continued their raids into Pennsylvania, Kentucky and West Virginia during the summer of 1790. Then President Washington called upon Pennsylvania, Virginia and Kentucky to raise militia to invade the Ohio country.
~~~ Now, On September 30th, General Harmar leaves Fort Washington with a force of between fourteen and fifteen hundred men and sets out towards Turkey Creek, where he is to join Colonel John Hardin.

~~~
Source:

Sipe, C. Hale. THE INDIAN WARS OF PENNSYLVANIA. (Telegraph Press, 1929).

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earlydaysinthebackcountry
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On this date, September 22 . . .

1758: Post’s First Mission to the Western Delawares, (continued). Post arrives at Fort Augusta on September 22nd. At Harris’ Ferry, he sends Pisquetomen and Thomas Hickman, a friendly Delaware, on to Philadelphia to deliver the peace belt and message
of the Western Delawares, while he goes on to see General Forbes, who is at Raystown (Bedford) with the main part of his
army.

~~~
Source:

Sipe, C. Hale. THE INDIAN WARS OF PENNSYLVANIA. (Telegraph Press, 1929).

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earlydaysinthebackcountry
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On this date, September 19 . . .

1758: Post’s First Mission to the Western Delawares, (continued). Travelling eastward across the mountains from Kuskuskies towards Fort Augusta, Post arrives at the Great Island (Lock Haven), on September 19th. There he meets a war party of twenty Delawares and Mingoes, returning from the settlements with five prisoners and one scalp. Post informs them where he has been and what he accomplished, whereupon the warriors say that, if they had known this, they would not have gone to war.

~~~
Source:

Sipe, C. Hale. THE INDIAN WARS OF PENNSYLVANIA. (Telegraph Press, 1929).

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The weather could not have been more perfect for Archaeology Day at Pricketts Fort last Saturday, Sept 14. Some random shots from the day’s activities are shown below. In addition, there were a number of archaeological exhibitions inside the Visitors Center, and the usual living history activities inside the fort.

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Native interpreter Aaron Bosnick weaving a fish net.

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Native interpreters Aaron Bosnick and Todd ____ weaving fish nets.

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Native interpreter Aaron Bosnick finger-weaving a sash.

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Native camp scene.

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Native interpreter Ed Robey fleshing a deer hide with a wood-handled flint scraper.

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Herk Conner knapping a large piece of flint with a moose antler billet.

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A selection of Herk Conner’s points, which he knapped himself.

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Sometime after midday, several interpreters sit for a spell in the Meeting House inside the fort to partake of a hearty hearth-cooked meal of goose, sweet potato, pumpernickle bread & Marlborough Pie, prepared by Cordelia Spencer and Judy Wilson.

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earlydaysinthebackcountry
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On this date, September 17 . . .

1764: Bouquet’s Expedition of 1764, (continued): (see Aug 13) Leaving Fort Loudon, Bouquet’s army marches over the mountains to Fort Pitt, following the Forbes Road. Near Bedford, a soldier is captured. Later in the march of the army, a few stragglers are killed by lurking Indians. The army arrives at Fort Pitt on September 17th, and soon thereafter a party of Delaware chiefs appear on the western bank of the Allegheny, pretending to be deputies sent by their nation to confer with Bouquet. After some hesitation, three of them come to the fort and, after being closely questioned, are unable to give a satisfactory account of their mission. Colonel Bouquet has two of them detained as hostages, Captain Pipe and Captain John, and sends the other back to his nation with the message that he proposes to pay no attention to the peace that the Delawares and Shawnees have made with Colonel Bradstreet, but will instead march his army against their towns. He also sends word with this chief that, if two messengers, which he has proposed to send to Colonel Bradstreet, are harmed in either going or coming, he will put Captain Pipe and Captain John to death. The liberated chief faithfully performs his mission.

1778: Westward March of the Eighth Pennsylvania Regiment & The Alliance with the Delawares, (continued): When Colonel Brodhead and his troops reached Fort Pitt, on September 10th, they found the wigwams of the Delawares pitched near the shore of the Allegheny a short distance above the fort. The conference began on September 12th, and now, on the 17th, the treaty is signed.
~~~ Besides White Eyes, the Delawares are represented by Killbuck, successor to New Comer of the Turtle Clan, Captain Pipe, successor to Custaloga, of the Wolf Clan, and Wingenund, the Delaware “wise man.” These three chiefs appear at the councils, in all their gaudy attire, painted, feathered, and beaded; while General Mcintosh and his
staff officers attend in new uniforms. The interpreter is Job Chilloway, a Delaware from the Susquehanna, who has learned the English language from having lived for a number of years among the white people.
~~~ General Lewis advises the Delaware chiefs of his intention to send an army against the British at Detroit, and asks the permission of the Delawares for the army to pass through the territory over which they claim control, bounded on the east by the Ohio and Allegheny, and on the west by the Hocking and Sandusky.
~~~ By the terms of the treaty as finally concluded, all offenses are mutually forgiven; a perpetual friendship is pledged; each party agrees to assist the other in any just war; the Delawares give permission for an American army to pass through their territory, and agree to furnish meat, corn, warriors and guides for the army. The United States agrees to erect and garrison a fort, within the Delaware country, for the protection of the old men, women, and children; and each party agrees to punish offenses committed by citizens of the other, according to a system to be arranged later. The United States promises the establishment of fair and honest trade relations; and lastly, the United States guarantees the integrity of the Delaware nation, and promises to admit it as a state of the American Union, “provided nothing contained in this article be considered as conclusive until it meets the approbation of congress.” With reference to the promise to admit the Delaware nation as a state of the Union,
the commissioners must know that this is an impossibility.
~~~ But the guileless White Eyes never suspects that he and his people are being imposed upon. Says he: “Brothers, we are become one people. We [the Delawares], are at a loss to express our thoughts, but we hope soon to convince you by our actions of the sincerity of our hearts. We now inform you that as many of our warriors as can possibly be spared will join you and go with you.”
~~~ This treaty is signed by the Delaware chiefs. White Eyes, Captain Pipe and John Killbuck. On the part of the United States, it is signed by General Andrew Lewis and his brother Thomas Lewis. It is witnessed by General Lachlan Mcintosh, Colonel Daniel Brodhead, Colonel William Crawford, Colonel John Gibson, Major Arthur Graham, Captain Joseph L. Finley, Captain John Finley, John Campbell, John Stephenson and Benjamin Mills. Its proceedings are found in the manuscript letter book of Colonel George Morgan, then Indian Agent at Fort Pitt.
~~~ The great courage of White Eyes in forming this alliance with the Americans is seen when it is recalled that all the other western tribes are on the side of the British, and, for some time have been endeavoring, by solicitation and threats, to draw all the Delawares into a British alliance. Colonel Hamilton, the “hair-
buyer” is still at the height of his career in sending war parties against the frontier settlements.

1791: General St. Clair’s Defeat:
~~~ President Washington determined to send another army against the Western Indians, and chose for its leader General Arthur St. Clair, of Westmoreland County, Governor of the Northwest Territory. Twenty-three hundred regulars and militia from Western Pennsylvania, Virginia and Kentucky assembled at Fort Washington.
~~~ “Beware of a surprise,” warned Washington to St.Clair, as the latter left Philadelphia to take charge of the army, many of whose soldiers were recruits from the large towns, enervated by idleness and debauchery, and unfit for the rigors of warfare against the Indians.
~~~ On September 17th, 1791, the army leaves Ludlow Station, six miles from Fort Washington (Cincinnati), and proceeds slowly to the Great Miami, where an advance detachment has erected Fort Hamilton named in honor of Alexander Hamilton.

~~~
Source:

Sipe, C. Hale. THE INDIAN WARS OF PENNSYLVANIA. (Telegraph Press, 1929).

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earlydaysinthebackcountry
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On this date (sometime in mid-September) . . .

1774, Logan’s Uprising (continued): (see July 21) Once more Logan goes on the war-path, this time setting out with a few chosen braves to the Holston and Clinch Rivers in Southwestern Virginia, where he has been informed that Captain Cresap makes his home. He and his warriors reach the neighborhood in the middle of September, where on Reedy Creek, a branch of the Holston, they kill the whole family of John Robertson except one young boy, whom they carry into captivity.
~~~ All circumstances point to this murder as being committed by Logan, inasmuch as the note which Logan addresses to Captain Cresap is found tied to a club in the house of the unfortunate settler, where, on the floor, are found the dead bodies of the family.

~~~
Source:

Sipe, C. Hale. THE INDIAN WARS OF PENNSYLVANIA. (Telgraph Press, 1929).

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earlydaysinthebackcountry
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On this date, September 14 . . .

1758: ~~~ Grant’s Defeat : The following account of the siege is from Callahan’s 1923 History of West Virginia:
~~~ The most disasterous event connected with General Forbes’ advance against Fort Duquesne is the defeat of Major James Grant, of the Highlanders (where the Allegheny Court House will later stand), in the city of Pittsburgh.
~~~ Major Grant, with a force of thirty-seven officers and eight hundred and five privates, is sent from Ligonier by Bouquet to reconnoiter the fort and adjacent country. Grant had begged Bouquet for permission to make this expedition. Grant’s instructions are not to approach too near the fort and not to attack it. The wilderness between Ligonier and Fort Duquesne is filled with Indians constantly watching the movements of Grant’s little army; yet he succeeds in coming within sight of the fort without being discovered. Late at night he draws up his troops on the brow of the hill in the city of Pittsburgh, which will later bear his name.
~~~ Not having met with either French or Indians on the march, and believing from the stillness of the enemy’s quarters that the forces in the fort are small. Grant at once determines to make an attack. Accordingly, two officers and fifty men are directed to approach the fort and fall upon the French and Indians that might be outside. They see none and are not challenged by the sentinels; and as they return, they set fire to a large storehouse, but the fire is extinguished.
~~~ At the break of day on the 14th, Grant sends Major Andrew Lewis with two hundred regulars and Virginia volunteers to take a position about a half mile back, and lie in ambush where they have left their baggage. Four hundred men are posted along the hill facing the fort, while Captain McDonald’s company, with drums beating and bagpipes playing, marches toward the fort in order to draw out the garrison. The music of the drums and bagpipes arouses the garrison
from their slumber, and both the French and Indians sally out in great numbers, the latter probably led by Guyasuta.
~~~ The British officers marshall their men according to European tactics. Major Lewis, at the beginning of the attack, leaves Captain Bullitt, with fifty Virginians, to guard the baggage, and hastens with the main part of his men to the scene of action. Lewis engages in a hand-to-hand struggle with an Indian warrior, whom he kills, but is compelled to surrender to a French officer.
~~~ The French and Indians separate into three divisions. The first two are sent under the cover of the banks of the Monongahela and Allegheny to surround the main body of Grant’s troops, while the third is delayed awhile to give the others time, and then line up before the fort as if exhibiting the whole strength of the garrison. This plan works admirably. Captain McDonald is obliged to fall back on the main body, and at the same time, Grant finds himself flanked by the detachments on both sides.
~~~ A desperate struggle ensues. The Highlanders, exposed to the enemy’s fire without cover, fall in great numbers. The provincials, concealing themselves among the trees, make a good defense for a while, but not being supported and being overpowered by numbers, are compelled to fall back. The result is that Grant’s forces are overwhelmingly and ingloriously defeated. Many of his brave troops are driven into the Allegheny River and drowned. The total loss is two hundred and seventy killed, forty-two wounded, and a number taken prisoner. Among the latter are Major Grant, Major Lewis and about nineteen other officers. The French account will later state that five officers and one hundred men are captured and that the French loss is only eight killed and eight wounded.
~~~ Captain Bullitt rallies some of the fugitives and, dispatching some of the most valuable baggage with the best horse, makes a barricade of the wagons, behind which he posts his men. After having finished the plunder of the battlefield, the Indians hasten in pursuit of the fugitives. They attack Bullitt’s men, who open a destructive fire upon them from behind the baggage wagons. This checks them for a time, but they soon come with greater numbers. Then Bullitt and his men hold out the signal of surrender, and advance as if to lay down their arms. When within eight yards of the Indians, Bullitt’s men suddenly level their rifles, pour in a destructive fire, and charge with the
bayonet. The Indians then flee in order to get reinforcements. Bullitt takes advantage of this check to collect some of the wounded and fugitives, with whom he hastens back to the camp at Ligonier. The Highlanders and the Virginians are those who fight the best and suffer the most in this bloody engagement. Six officers and sixty-two privates of the Virginia forces lie dead on the field. The road back to Ligonier is strewn with the dead.

~~~
Source:

Sipe, C. Hale. THE INDIAN WARS OF PENNSYLVANIA. (Telegraph Press, 1929).

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earlydaysinthebackcountry
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On this date, September 13 . . .

1758: Post’s First Mission to the Western Delawares, (continued).  Having left Kuskuskies on Sept 7, Post and his companions hasten on their way over the mountains to Eastern Pennsylvania, bearing the peace belt of the Western Delawares. During the night of September 13th, at a point near Punxsutawney, rustling is heard in the bushes near their camp, whereupon Post’s Indian companions keep watch, one after another, all the rest of the night. “In the morning,” Post will later write, “I asked them what made them afraid. They said I knew nothing ; the French had set a great price on my head; and they knew there was gone out a great scout to lie in wait for me.”

1782: Attack on Rice’s Fort:   A band of about seventy Indians attacks the blockhouse of Abraham Rice, on Buffalo Creek, in what is now Donegal Township, Washington County. The attack continues from two o’clock in the afternoon until two o’clock the following morning. Although the little fort is defended by only six men, yet the Indians are unable to capture it. One of the defenders, George Felebaum, is shot through the brain while peering through a loop-hole, and four of the Indians are killed. As the Indian band is returning to the Ohio River, they meet two settlers who were on their way to the relief of Rice’s stockade, and kill them. The attack on Rice’s Fort is the last invasion of Western Pennsylvania by a large body of Indians. The Indians who attack Rice’s Fort are part of a larger force which also unsuccessfully attacks Fort Henry, at Wheeling, West Virginia, on September 11th and 12th.

~~~
Source:

Sipe, C. Hale. THE INDIAN WARS OF PENNSYLVANIA. (Telegraph Press, 1929).

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earlydaysinthebackcountry
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On this date, September 11 . . .

1782: ~~~ Siege of Fort Henry: The following account of the siege is from Callahan’s 1923 History of West Virginia:
~~~ “The last siege of Fort Henry occurred in September, 1782, and has sometimes been regarded as the last battle of the Revolutionary. The attack was made by forty irregular British soldiers (Butler’s Rangers) and 230 Indians (Wyandotts & Delawares) under the command of Captain Bradt, who apparently did not regard the surrender of Cornwallis as the end of the war. The attack was so sudden that there was barely time for the people to repair to the fort after they had received warning from the commandant. The enemy began by the demand of an immediate surrender, which was refused. Having learned by experience that rushes against the stockade walls were not likely to be successful, the enemy remained beyond rifle range until dark. During this delay the garrison was fortunate in receiving small reinforcements from the captain and crew of a boat from Pittsburgh which was loaded with cannon balls for the garrison at Lewisville.
~~~ During the night the Indians tried more than a score of times to set fire to the fort by firing hemp placed against the palisades, but the hemp was too damp to burn. They next tried to break in the gate by assaults with logs but were unsuccessful. They then decided to burn the cabin of Colonel Zane (located near the fort), from which they had been annoyed during the attack by shots fired by Colonel Zane and his family, but again their attempt failed.
~~~ The story of Elizabeth Zane’s bravery in this connection is well known. Ebenezer Zane’s cabin stood very near to the fort. He considered it near enough to be successfully defended and he was anxious to hold it, as it was believed that the enemy would burn all the houses in their power as they had done in 1777. Two white men and a negro remained in the cabin with Zane. While the attack was delayed, the discovery was made that a keg of powder which was needed in the fort had been left in Zane’s cabin. To get it while scores of Indians were within shooting distance was extremely perilous, but several volunteers offered themselves for the service. Among them was Elizabeth, daughter of Ebenezer Zane, and upon her insistence she was sent for the powder. As she ran from the fort across the open space to the cabin, the Indians saw her but refrained from firing, simply exclaiming contemptuously, “A squaw.” But when she emerged from the cabin door a few minutes later with the powder in a tablecloth that had been tied around her waist by her father, the purpose of her mission was suspected and bullets struck all about her as she ran, but she escaped harm and safely entered the fort.
~~~ Finally the Indians jeered at what they supposed was a wooden cannon (but what was a real cannon) mounted on one of the bastions where they could easily see it. Doubting the genuineness of the cannon they challenged the garrison to fire it. Then, taking possession of an empty cabin near the fort, they proceeded to make night hideous with a war dance. Suddenly in the midst of their dancing a cannon ball broke a joist and precipitated the entire g crowd of Indians to the floor below. Instigated by the repeated firing of the cannon thereafter they decided to make a cannon of their own for reply. Improvising a siege gun from a hollow log, wrapping it with chains from a neighboring blacksmith’s shop, and loading it with cannon balls taken from the boat at the river’s edge, they aimed it at the gate of the fort and applied fire to the powder. Discouraged by the result of the explosion which left some of them wounded by splinters and did no harm to the fort, they retired and unsuccessfully turned their attention to Rice ‘s fort in the vicinity.”

~~~
Source:

Callahan, James Morton, The History of West Virginia, Old and New (1923).

Sipe, C. Hale. THE INDIAN WARS OF PENNSYLVANIA. (Telegraph Press, 1929).

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earlydaysinthebackcountry
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On this date, September 10 . . .

1778: Westward March of the Eighth Pennsylvania Regiment, (continued): Having left Carlisle on August 13th, the Eighth Pennsylvania Regiment marches by way of Bedford, Ligonier and Hannastown to Fort Pitt, where it arrives on September 10th, almost three months on the road from Valley Forge. Says Hassler, in his “Old Westmoreland”:

“After it [the Eighth Pennsylvania Regiment] reached Bedford, it was in its own country. From that place to Pittsburgh, all along the line of march, there were many joyful reunions, and doubtless the travel-stained soldiers were well served with food and drink as they passed through Westmoreland. Yet many tearful women sat at the wayside cabins and sad-faced parents looked in vain for the familiar figures of beloved sons. Nearly three hundred of the stout frontier youths who marched away to the East to help Washington did not return to the defense of their own borderland.”

~~~
Source:

Sipe, C. Hale. THE INDIAN WARS OF PENNSYLVANIA. (Telegraph Press, 1929).

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from the Bray Collection

This Saturday, September 14, Achaeology Family Day will come to Pricketts Fort. Bring the family and learn about the prehistory of West Virginia. Displays, demostrations, and hands-on activities for kids will be available throughout the day. Regular admission applies.

This even is made possible with the support of the Council for West Virginia Archaeology.

Visitor Center Displays:

~~ Artifacts from the Pricketts Fort reconstruction.
~~ The Sabo Collection
~~ The Bray Collection
~~ The Cain Collection
~~ Projectile point identification by Dave Cain
   (The public is encouraged to bring in their artifacts for identification)

Demonstrations:

~~ Flint knapping by Herk Conner
~~ Brain-tanned Hides by Ed Robey
~~ Net Making by Aaron Bosnick

Hands-on activites:

Pottery , Cornhusk Dolls

Programming at Pricketts Fort is supported through the generous support of the Marion County Commission, the Town of White Hall and the City of Pleasant Valley. The Pricketts Fort Memorial Foundation appreciates this ongoing support of the performing arts and the promotion of tourism events in our community.

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earlydaysinthebackcountry

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On this date, September 7 . . .

1756: The Destruction of Kittanning (continued).
~~~ The scouts sent out by Colonel Armstrong to reconnoitre Kittaning (see September 6), return and report that the road is clear of the enemy, but, as it will be revealed later, they were not near enough to the town to learn its exact situation or the best way to approach it.

1758: Post’s First Mission to the Western Delawares, (continued).
~~~ (see September 4) Just before Post leaves Kuskuskies on September 7th, King Beaver and Shingas, referring to the fact that Governor Denny and Teedyuscung had entrusted Post to their brother, Pisquetomen, addresses their
brother as follows: “Brother, you told us that the Governor of Philadelphia and Teedyuscung took this man out of their bosoms, and put him into your bosom, that you should bring him here; and you have brought him here to us; and now we give him into your bosom, to bring him to the same place again, before the Governor; but do not let him quite loose; we shall rejoice when we shall see him here again.”
~~~ Post and his companions then hasten on their way over the mountains to Eastern Pennsylvania, bearing the peace belt of the Western Delawares.

1758: General Forbes’ Expedition Against Fort Duquesne: The March over the Mountains (continued).
~~~ (see Sept 1) Referring to his arrival at Ligonier, Colonel Bouquet will later write: “The day on which I arrived at the camp, which was the 7th [of September], it was reported to me that we were surrounded by parties of Indians, several soldiers having been scalped or made prisoners.” By this time, all his force has arrived. Here, on the banks of the Loyalhanna, Bouquet erects Fort Ligonier. He also erects the fortificaion known as “Breastwork Hill”, on Nine Mile Run, in what is now Unity Township, Westmoreland County, about ten miles west of Ligonier.
~~~ The work of cutting, hewing and blasting the road over the main range of the Allegheny Mountains and, particularly, the parallel range of the Laurel Hills to the westward, is prodigious. In many places, the road must be cut into the rock on the sides of steep declivities. As far as the eye can reach, the vast and primeval forest covers the mountain ranges and the valleys between. Forbes describes the mountain region through which the road
is cut as an “immense uninhabited wilderness, overgrown everywhere with trees and brushwood, so that nowhere can one see twenty yards.”

~~~
Source:

Sipe, C. Hale. THE INDIAN WARS OF PENNSYLVANIA. (Telegraph Press, 1929).

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earlydaysinthebackcountry

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On this date, September 4 . . .

1756: The Destruction of Kittanning (continued).
~~~ Colonel Armstrong’s army leaves the “Beaver Dams,” near Hollidaysburg (see Sept 3), and, following the Kittanning Indian Trail, arrive at a point within fifty miles of Kittanning two days later.

1758: Post’s First Mission to the Western Delawares, (continued).
~~~ At Kuskuskies (see Sept 3), On September 4th, two hundred French and Indians came to Kuskuskies on their way to Fort Duquesne. They stay all night. During the middle of the night. King Beaver’s daughter dies, “on which,” says Post, “a great many guns were fired in the town.”

~~~
Source:

Sipe, C. Hale. THE INDIAN WARS OF PENNSYLVANIA. (Telegraph Press, 1929).

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Making a corn mortar

Our first attempt at making a corn mortar, or hominy block, came to naught due to our stump possessing a punk center. This time around we were fortunate to find (a friend fished it out of the lagoon below the fort) a fine section of black locust– the preferred wood for long-lasting fence posts as the wood is very hard and durable. For that reason, it is also very resistant to gouging out, particularly when you are trying to work your way down against the end grain. Even with a chain saw, the going would be very tough.

We, of course, confined ourselves to methods and tools which would have been available on the eighteenth-century frontier. You can follow our progress below, through a succession of captioned photographs. The project was led by blacksmith John Boback, who had participated in the making of a corn mortar at Meadowcroft. John’s assistant was farmer BJ Omanson.

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The process begins with a robust fire in the firepit.

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A shovelful of embers, including a few small chunks of burning coal, are placed on the locust block.

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The fire on the block will be ineffectual unless constantly blasted with air. Both Indians and Europeans used the hollow stem of Joe Pye Weed for this purpose. We found it worked very well, provided the blowers have a good set of lungs and a fair amount of stamina. We took turns, and kept at it pretty constantly, not allowing the fire to die down. Here John Boback is seen getting the process started.

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As the embers burn down, they are replensihed by more embers from the firepit. Eventually, however, the unburnt remnants, especially from coal, build up and begin to smother the fire. The objective is to get the block itself burning, which requires constant blasting of air. Whenever the unburnt remnants begin to smother the burning block, they must be dumped.

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After dumping, as much charred wood as possible is removed by scraping with the end of a stout stick.

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After the first burning, a shield of mud is applied to control the burnt area and maintain a strong, thick collar around the hole.

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The shield extends down along the sides of the hole.

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And so the process of piling in new embers, blowing them until the block itself is burning, replenishing the embers as they are consumed, etc, continues.

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After a long session of constant blowing, the wood of the block itself is burning everywhere within the bowl, right up to the edge of the mud.

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Finally, after some 15-18 hours of burning, blowing, dumping and scraping, John dumps the block for a final time.

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He gives it a final scraping with the stick.

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Using a hammer and chisel, John evens out the sides of the bowl.

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The result is a bowl about 8.5 inches deep. We were hoping for 10 inches, but during the second to last burning a crevice opened up in the bottom of the bowl. A subsequent burning opened the crevice a little wider, so the decision was made to stop, lest the crevice become even wider. As it is, the crevice is still insignificant. Though the bowl is not quite as deep as hoped, it should be adequate. When pounding hard corn, the corn will bounce out of the bowl if it is too shallow, but 8.5 inches should be just deep enough.

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The final step is to use a clam shell to scrape the bowl clean and give it a hard polish. Once John has finished with this process, the result is a bowl that still looks somewhat black, but which is clean to the touch, and which shows the grain of wood through a dull polished sheen.

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earlydaysinthebackcountry
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On this date, August 28 . . .

1758: Post’s First Mission to the Western Delawares, (continued).
~~~ (see August 27) On August 28th, Post and a party of twenty set out from Sauconk for Kuskuskies. Among the party is Shingas. “On the road,” Post will record later, “Shingas addressed himself to me, and asked if I did not think that, if he came to the English, they would hang him, as they had offered a great reward for his head. He spoke in a very soft and easy manner. I told him that was a great while ago ; it was all forgotten and wiped clean away; that the English would receive him very kindly.” At this point Shamokin Daniel interrupts, and tells Shingas not to believe Post, that the English have hired hundreds of Cherokees to kill the Delawares; and that both he (Daniel) and Post had seen an Indian woman lying dead in the road, murdered by the Cherokees. “Damn you,” exclaims Daniel, “why do not you (the English) and the French fight on the sea? You come here only to cheat the poor Indians, and take their land from them.” That night Post and his party arrive at Kuskuskies, where they will remain until September 7th.

~~~
Source:

Sipe, C. Hale. THE INDIAN WARS OF PENNSYLVANIA. (Telegraph Press, 1929).

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earlydaysinthebackcountry
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On this date, August 27 . . .

1758: Post’s First Mission to the Western Delawares, (continued).
~~~ Realizing that it is too dangerous for Post to remain longer so near Fort Duquesne (see August 26), a party of his Indian friends leave with him for Sauconk before daylight, by a different trail than the one over which they had come. They pass through three Shawnee towns on the way, at all of which Post is well received, and arrive at Sauconk in the evening, where he is also gladly welcomed. In the Shawnee towns. Post see many Indians he became acquainted with at Wyoming.

~~~
Source:

Sipe, C. Hale. THE INDIAN WARS OF PENNSYLVANIA. (Telegraph Press, 1929).

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earlydaysinthebackcountry
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On this date, August 26 . . .

1758: Post’s First Mission to the Western Delawares, (continued).
~~~ On the right bank of the Allegheny, under the guns of Fort Duquesne (see August 25), in the presence of French officers, who, with paper and pen, take down every word he speaks, and in the presence of three hundred Indians — Delawares, Shawnees, Mingoes and Ottawas, Christian Frederick Post, delivers the peace message of the Governor of Pennsylvania and the King of England to the assembled warriors, and pleads that they accept the message and withdraw from their allegiance with the French. After he ends his plea for peace, the French hold a council with their most devoted Indian allies, at Fort Duquesne, and urged that, inasmuch as the Delawares accompanying Post are wavering in their allegiance and inclining to the English interest, they should all be killed, to which proposal the Ottawas object and prevent its being carried into execution.

~~~
Source:

Sipe, C. Hale. THE INDIAN WARS OF PENNSYLVANIA. (Telegraph Press, 1929).

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earlydaysinthebackcountry
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On this date, August 25 . . .

1758: Post’s First Mission to the Western Delawares, (continued).
~~~ Leaving Logstown on August 25th, Post’s party arrives on the right bank of the Allegheny, just opposite Fort Duquesne, in the afternoon. Here King Beaver introduces him to the Indians who have come over from the fort. All are glad to see him except an Old deaf Onondaga Indian who rises up and signified his displeasure. The old Indian will apologize, however, the next day, when some Delaware and Shawnee friends of Post give him a roll of tobacco.
~~~ Post’s situation is now most critical. French officers demand that he be taken to the fort, but his Indian friends will “not suffer him to be blinded and carried into the Fort.” The next day, the Indians warn him that the French have offered a reward for his scalp and that he should “not stir from the Fire.” “Accordingly,” Post records in his journal, “I stuck constantly as close to the fire as if I had been charm’d there.” The Indian to whom the French have offered a reward for Post’s scalp is Shamokin Daniel, one of his own party, and from this time onward, Post will have much trouble with this Delaware, to whom the French have given a string of wampum to kill Post.

~~~
Source:

Sipe, C. Hale. THE INDIAN WARS OF PENNSYLVANIA. (Telegraph Press, 1929).

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earlydaysinthebackcountry
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On this date, August 24 . . .

1781: Colonel Lochry’s Expedition (continued) : (see August 20) On the forenoon of August 24th, the boats of Colonel Lochry’s expedition approach a level spot at the mouth of the creek which will become known as Lochry’s Run, the same being the dividing line between Ohio and Dearborn Counties, Indiana. It being absolutely necessary to land somewhere to feed the horses and hunt game for the half-famished soldiers, Lochry at once orders a landing. The boats are therefore beached, and the men and horses are soon on the northern shore.

Lochry's Defeat
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~~~ No sooner have they landed than half a hundred muskets blaze from the woods that flank the level ground near the shore. Many of Lochry’s men are killed and others wounded. Still others hasten to the boats and push for the Kentucky shore.
~~~ Says Hassler in his Old Westmoreland: “Painted savages then appeared, shrieking and firing, and a fleet of canoes filled with other savages shot out from the Kentucky shore, completely cutting off the escape of Lochry’s men. The volunteers returned the fire for a few moments, but were entrapped, and Colonel Lochry offered to surrender. The fight ceased, the boats poled back to shore and the force landed the second time. Human blood was now mingled with that of the buffalo in the languidly flowing river. [The troops had shot a buffalo at the water's edge just before the attack]. …. The Westmoreland men found themselves the prisoners of Joseph Brant, the famous war chief of the Mohawks, with a large band of Iroquois, Shawnees, and Wyandots. George Girty, a brother of Simon, was in command of some of the Indians. The fierce Shawnees could not be controlled and began at once to kill their share of the prisoners. While Lochry sat on a log, a Shawnee warrior stepped behind him and sank a tomahawk into the Colonel’s skull, tearing off the scalp before life was gone. It was with great difficulty that Brant prevented the massacre of the men assigned to the Mohawks and Wyandots.”
~~~ In this ill-fated expedition, forty of Lochry’s force are slain, most of them after the surrender. The prisoners who are not immediately killed by the Indians are taken to Detroit and from there to Montreal, at which place a few will manage to escape, with the remainder released after the treaty of peace ending the Revolutionary War. Among the few who will return to Westmoreland County, are Richard Wallace, the quarter-master. Captain Thomas Stokely, Lieutenant Richard Fleming, John Guthrie, John Crawford, Lieutenant Isaac Anderson, Ensign James Hunter, Manasseh Coyle, Captain Robert Orr, and Lieutenant Samuel Craig, Jr.
~~~ Thus Colonel Lochry’s expedition ends in disaster. General George Rogers Clark’s expedition will also fail. By the time Clark arrives at Fort Nelson, opposite Louisville, Kentucky, so many of his force will have deserted that he will be unable to ccontinue his march into the Indian territory.

~~~
Source:

Sipe, C. Hale. THE INDIAN WARS OF PENNSYLVANIA. (Telegraph Press, 1929).

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earlydaysinthebackcountry
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On this date, August 23 . . .

1758: Post’s First Mission to the Western Delawares, (continued).
~~~ Arriving at Logstown on the evening of August 23 (see August 20), Post meets with many English captives, and is permitted to shake hands with them — a thing he was not permitted to do at Kuskuskies where he saw Marie le Roy and Barbara Leininger, as well as other English captives. Post will remain in Logstown until August 25th.

General Richard Butler

General Richard Butler

1774: Logan’s Uprising, (continued): General Richard Butler, in his affidavit made before Arthur St. Clair, on August 23d, 1774, recites the cold-blooded murder of Chief Logan’s family, the murder of the Indians at the mouth of Captina Creek, the “horrid act in violation of the laws of friendship” in attacking the Shawnees under Cornstalk’s brother, the general base conduct of the unprincipled Connolly, and then adds:
~~~ “These facts, I think, was sufficient to bring on a war with a Christian instead of a Savage People, and I do declare it as my opinion that the Shawnees did not intend a war this Season, let their future intentions be what they might; and I do likewise declare that I am afraid, from the proceedings of the Chief of the White People in this part of the Country, that they will bring on a general war, as there is so little pains taken to restrain the common people whose prejudice leads them to greater lengths than ought to be shown by civilized people.”

~~~
Source:

Sipe, C. Hale. THE INDIAN WARS OF PENNSYLVANIA. (Telegraph Press, 1929).

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earlydaysinthebackcountry
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On this date, August 20 . . .

1758: Post’s First Mission to the Western Delawares, (continued).
~~~ (see August 12). On August 20th, Christian Frederick Post, accompanied by twenty-five horsemen and fifteen footmen, travels to Sauconk at the mouth of the Beaver. Here he is not well received, being surrounded by Indians with drawn knives. Finally, when Post recognizes a few of the Indians and starts talking with them, their manner suddenly changes. Post goes from here to Logstown, at which place he will arrive on the evening of August 23d.

1781: Colonel Lochry’s Expedition (continued) : On August 20th, two of Captain Shannon’s men (see August 16 & 17) are picked up from the southern shore. They inform Colonel Lochry that Shannon’s men have been attacked by Indians on the Kentucky side of the river below the mouth of the Scioto. These two half-starved soldiers are the only survivors, a third soldier having been fatally wounded by stepping on his hunting knife while fleeing through the brush. Unhappily Captain Shannon was carrying a letter to General Clark, revealing the weakness and distressed condition of Lochry’s men. This letter fell into the hands of the Indians, who have been watching Lochry’s flotilla ever since it left Wheeling.

1794: The Battle of Fallen Timbers:
~~~ Prelude. The uprising of the Western Indians and the raids upon the Western Pennsylvania frontier continuing, and after the disgrace of Harmar’s and St. Clair’s defeats, there was a loud call loudly for a third expedition against the western tribes. President Washington chose General Wayne, “Mad Anthony,” the hero of Stony Point, to lead the expedition. When informed by Washington of his selection, Wayne is said to have replied: “I am the very man you want.” Wayne was a strict disciplinarian, and determined to avoid the faults which brought overwhelming and inglorious defeat upon his predecessors. He arrived in Pittsburgh in June, 1792, having been furnished with instructions from Washington in which it was stated that ” . . . another defeat would be irredeemably ruinous to the reputation of the Government.” His force was to consist of five thousand men, carefully drilled, and to be called “The Legion of the United States.” At Pittsburgh, Wayne erected Fort Fayette, where the Western National Bank now stands.
~~~ In December, 1792, Wayne’s legion was taken to the beautiful plain overlooking the Ohio, about twenty miles below Pittsburgh, where sham battles were fought and daily drills held. The place of this winter camp is known as Legionville to this day. While here, he was visited by the old Indian chiefs, Guyasuta and Cornplanter, then friends of the United States.
~~~ Breaking camp late in April, 1793, Wayne led his forces to Fort Washington (Cincinnati), where they were reinforced by regulars and mounted militia from Kentucky. It was so late in the season before all his forces were collected and supplies procured, that the offensive movement was delayed until the next spring. Late in the year, he moved to a new camp. Fort Greenville, in Darke County, Ohio, six miles north of Fort Jefferson.
~~~ During the winter, Wayne remained at Fort Greenville, swept the country between this place and the Miami villages, and took possession of the ground upon which St. Clair was defeated, erecting a fort there which he called Fort Recovery. Another detachment later marched to the scene of General Harmar’s defeat, and erected Fort Wayne, named in honor of the commander of the Legion, His force now consisted of thirty-six hundred troops.
~~~ In the meantime, in the spring of 1793, commissioners representing the United States met the western tribes in council, and proposed that, in consideration of the lands ceded by the treaty at Fort Harmar, the United States should pay the Indians “a large sum of money, or goods, besides a full yearly supply of such articles as they needed.” The chiefs replied that money was of no value to them. Said they: “You talk to us about concessions. It appears strange that you should expect any from us, who have only been defending our just rights against your invasions. We want peace. Restore to us our country, and we shall be enemies no longer.”
~~~ During the summer of 1794, Fort Recovery was garrisoned by a small detachment under Captain Gibson. On June 29th, Major William McMahon arrived at Fort Recovery with ninety riflemen and fifty dragoons. The next morning the fort was assailed by a large force of Indians and British and Detroit militia. They were repulsed with great slaughter. They renewed the attack the following morning, and were again repulsed. Then they retreated from the same field where St. Clair’s army had gone down to crushing defeat. The exact number of the Indian and British losses was never learned; but when the enemy returned to the British post, Fort Miami, they said that no man ever fought better than they did at Fort Recovery, and that they lost twice as many as at St. Clair’s defeat. One hundred and forty-two Americans were killed in the two attacks on Fort Recovery.
~~~~ However, the repulse of the Indian and British forces of more than fifteen hundred, showed the mettle of the Legion of the United States.
~~~ On July 26th, 1794, Wayne was joined at Fort Greenville by General Charles Scott, with sixteen hundred mounted volunteers from Kentucky. He then moved forward, skirmishing with bands of lurking Indians as he advanced. He marched with open files, to insure rapidity in forming a line or in extending the flanks, and drilled his men to load while marching. He always halted in the middle of the afternoon, encamping in a hollow square and surrounding his camp with a rampart of logs. Arriving at the site of the present village of Defiance, Ohio, the confluence of the Anglaize and Maumee Rivers, Wayne erected Fort Defiance, and made proposals of peace to the Indians. These were rejected contrary to the advice of Little Turtle, and in accordance with the advice of Blue Jacket. Said Little Turtle: “We have beaten the enemy twice under separate commanders. We cannot expect the same good fortune always to attend us. The Americans are now led by a chief who never sleeps. The night and day are alike to him, and during all the time that he has been marching upon our villages, notwithstanding the watchfulness of our young men, we have never been able to surprise him.” Indeed, so stealthy had been Wayne’s advance that the Indians nicknamed him “the Blacksnake.”

The Battle of Fallen Timbers

The Battle

On August 18th, Wayne continued his march and, now, on the morning of August 20th he has proceeded about five miles, to a point several miles south of the present town of Maumee, in Lucas County, Ohio, when his advance guard is heavily fired upon by Indians in concealment, and falls back. He forms his men into two lines where a tornado had blown down a number of trees in the woods -— a circumstance which will give the engagement the name of the “Battle of the Fallen Timbers”” The fallen trees make cavalry operations difficult, and afford a shelter for the two thousand Indians and Canadians who are posted among them in two lines.
~~~ Wayne’s militia charges impetuously with the bayonet, leaping over the logs and delivering a well-directed fire, while General Scott with his mounted volunteers, turns the right flank of the enemy by a circuitous movement, and Colonel Campbell, with his legionary cavalry, turns the enemy’s left flank. The Indians are driven at the point of the bayonet for more than two miles through the forest, and decisively beaten. Nine Wyandot chiefs lay dead on the field.
~~~ Blue Jacket, Little Turtle, Buckongahelas, Simon Girty, Alexander McKee and Matthew Elliott have lead the Indian forces in this battle.
~~~ Wayne, in his official report, states that the woods were strewn with the bodies of the Indians and their white allies, and that the latter were armed with British muskets. The Americans have lost thirty-three killed and one hundred wounded. The Indians have been driven under the guns of the British fort (Fort Miami) in the neighborhood, and so strong is the resentment of Wayne’s men against the English, that it is only with difficulty that they can be restrained from storming the fort. Indeed, many of the Kentucky troops advance within gunshot of the fort and hurl a volley of curses against the garrison. However, the gates of the fort are closed against the Indians. Captain Campbell, the British commandant, sends a message to Wayne, complaining of this insult and demanding by what authority Wayne’s troops have trespassed upon the precincts of the British garrison. Mad Anthony replies in terms little less polite than those of the Kentucky troops, informing Captain Campbell that his only chance of safety is silence and civility.
~~~ The day after the battle (Aug 21) General Wayne will ride up to the British
Fort Miami and cooly inspect the works while the British hold matches ready at their cannon. Then Wayne’s troops destroy the Indian cornfields, orchards, trading-houses, and stores. Soon after their crushing defeat, the various western tribes send delegations to General Wayne asking for peace. These are the Wyandots, the Shawnees, the Delawares, the Miamis, the Ojibwas, the Ottawas, the Potawatomies, the Weas, the Kickapoos, the Piankeshaws and the Kaskaskias.
~~~ In addition to breaking forever the power of the western tribes, one of the results of the Battle of the Fallen Timbers will be the surrender to the United States of Niagara, Detroit, Mackinac, Miami, and other posts hitherto held by the British, from which bases they had assisted and encouraged the Indians in their hostility against the Americans.

~~~  The significance of The Battle of Fallen Timbers to the American settlers in western Pennsylvania and Virginia, including the Pricketts and others along the Monongahela, is that from this time onward, the Indian threat was effectively at an end.

~~~
Source:

Sipe, C. Hale. THE INDIAN WARS OF PENNSYLVANIA. (Telegraph Press, 1929).

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earlydaysinthebackcountry
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On this date, August 17 . . .

1781 Colonel Lochry’s Expedition (continued) : Two men who are sent out from Colonel Archibald Lochry’s force (see Aug 16) to hunt for game fail to return. It is likely they have been killed by Indians.

 

~~~
Source:

Sipe, C. Hale. THE INDIAN WARS OF PENNSYLVANIA. (Telegraph Press, 1929).

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earlydaysinthebackcountry
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On this date, August 16 . . .

1781 Colonel Lochry’s Expedition (continued) : Colonel Archibald Lochry (see Aug 15), sends Captain Samuel Shannon and seven men in a small boat, to endeaver to overtake General George Rogers Clark and ask him to leave some provisions for the Westmoreland flotilla.

 

~~~
Source:

Sipe, C. Hale. THE INDIAN WARS OF PENNSYLVANIA. (Telegraph Press, 1929).

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earlydaysinthebackcountry
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On this date, August 15 . . .

1781 Colonel Lochry’s Expedition (continued) : Colonel Archibald Lochry (see Aug 13), overtakes a large horse boat, which has been left for Lochry by General George Rogers Clark, to use for his horses. Once Lochry’s men have loaded the horses onto the boat, the expedition moves with increased speed.

 

~~~
Source:

Sipe, C. Hale. THE INDIAN WARS OF PENNSYLVANIA. (Telegraph Press, 1929).

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earlydaysinthebackcountry
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On this date, August 12 . . .

1758: Post’s First Mission to the Western Delawares, (continued).
~~~ After spending two days searching for the right trail to Kuskuskies (see Aug 10), Post and his companions reach an Indian town on Conoquenessing Creek, about fifteen miles from Kuskuskies, Post sends Pisquetomen on ahead to let the chiefs know that he is coming with a message from the Governor and people of Pennsylvania and the King of England. Shortly after Pisquetomen leaves, Post meets some Shawnees, who formerly lived at Wyoming. They recognize him and treat him very kindly.
~~~ Arriving at Kuskuskies that same day (August 12th), Post is kindly welcomed by King Beaver, and ten other chiefs salute him. They hold long conversations with Post around the council fire until midnight. Post finds himself among the leaders of the bloody raids into the Pennsylvania settlements — King Beaver, Keckenepaulin and Shingas, the last of whom is the terror of the frontier, for whose head Governor Denny, in 1756, set a price of two hundred pounds. Other chiefs with whom Post holds councils at Kuskuskies until August 20th, are Delaware George, who was his former disciple at the Moravian mission, and Killbuck. He makes known to all the chiefs the peace between Pennsylvania and the Eastern Delawares brought about at the treaty with Teedyuscung at Easton. After one of the councils, lasting far into the night, Delaware George is unable to sleep, so affected is he by the peace message of his former teacher and mentor. A French Captain and fifteen soldiers come to Kuskuskies to build houses for the Indians, and they use every art to get possession of Post, but to no avail. Even the bloody Shingas loves the gentle Moravian, and protects him.

1760: General Robert Monckton holds a council at Fort Pitt with King Beaver, Delaware George, Teedyuscung and many other chiefs of the Delawares, Shawnees, Six Nations, Ottawas, Wyandots and other tribes of the region between the Allegheny Mountains and the Mississippi River, in which he solemnly assures the assembled chiefs as follows: “I do assure all the Indian Nations that his Majesty has not sent me to deprive any of you of your lands and property.”

~~~
Source:

Sipe, C. Hale. THE INDIAN WARS OF PENNSYLVANIA. (Telgraph Press, 1929).

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earlydaysinthebackcountry
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On this date, August 3 . . .

1781 Colonel Lochry’s Expedition (continued): Colonel Archibald Lochry (see August 1) and his little band of eighty-three militiamen begin their march to join General George Rogers Clark at Wheeling, their first camp being at Gaspard Markle’s mill and blockhouse, two miles east of West Newton. Crossing the Youghiogheny at West Newton and the Monongahela at Monongahela City, Lochry’s force will then march overland by the settlements on the headwaters of Chartiers and Raccoon Creeks, Washington County, and will reach the Ohio River at Wheeling, western Virginia, on August 8th.

Treaty of Greenville

1795: Treaty of Greenville. Almost a year after their defeat at the Battle of the Fallen Timbers, the western tribes (the Wyandots, the Shawnees, the Delawares, the Miamis, the Ojibwas, the Ottawas, the Potawatomies, the Weas, the Kickapoos, the Piankeshaws and the Kaskaskias) sign the Treaty at Greenville, Darke County, Ohio, by the terms of which they cede to the United States 25,000 square miles of territory north of the Ohio River, about two-thirds of the present state of Ohio. The treaty provides that the western tribes be given twenty thousand dollars in goods and an annual allowance of nine thousand five hundred dollars.
~~~ That part of Pennsylvania west of the Allegheny River and hitherto known as “the Indian country,” will henceforth be free from Indian raids. As described in Sipe’s The Indian Wars of Pennsylvania [1931], from that point onward, “. . . settlers rapidly took up their abode in the fertile region, felling the forest, cultivating the virgin soil, and laying the foundation of the material prosperity which there abounds today. Meanwhile the Indian continued his march toward the untrodden West before the great tide of white immigration that was pressing him away from the lands he and his forefathers considered their own, as the gift of the Great Spirit, who had stocked the forests with game and the streams with fish for His Red Children.”

~~~
Source:

Sipe, C. Hale. THE INDIAN WARS OF PENNSYLVANIA. ( Telegraph Press, 1929).

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earlydaysinthebackcountry
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On this date, August 2 . . .

1763: Siege of Fort Pitt . On August 2nd, Captain Ecuyer writes to Colonel Bouquet, describing the siege of Fort Pitt (see Aug 1). Among other
things, he says in his letter:

“They were well under cover, and so were we. They did us no harm; nobody killed, seven wounded, and I myself slightly. Their attack lasted five days and five nights. We are certain of having killed and wounded twenty of them, without reckoning those we could not see. I left nobody fire until he had marked his man; and not an Indian could show his nose without being pricked with a bullet, for we have some good marksmen here
. . . Our men are doing admirably, regulars and the rest. All they ask is to go out and fight. I am fortunate to have the honor of commanding such brave men. I only wish the Indians had ventured an assault. They would have remembered it to the thousandth generation! . . . They threw fire arrows to burn our works, but they could not reach the buildings, nor even the ramparts. Only two arrows came into the fort, one of which had the insolence to make free with my left leg.”

~~~ Siege of Fort Ligonier (see July 28). Colonel Bouquet, with his little army of relief, arrives at Fort Ligonier, putting an end to the siege. The Indians fly from the fort upon the approach of the army. Lieutenant Blane, the
commander of the post, can give Colonel Bouquet no information whatever as to the situation at Fort Pitt, fifty miles to the westward, as he has been besieged for weeks, and as not one of the messengers sent from Captain Ecuyer had been able to get through.

~~~
Source:

Sipe, C. Hale. THE INDIAN WARS OF PENNSYLVANIA. ( Telgraph Press, 1929).

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earlydaysinthebackcountry
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On this date, August 1 . . .

1756: Captain Jacobs Captures Fort Granville. The Delaware chief. Captain Jacobs, at the head of a band of his tribe from Kittanning, accompanied by  some French soldiers, captures and burns Fort Granville, on the Juniata, near Lewistown, Mifflin County.
~~~ The attack upon Fort Granville is made in harvest time. The Fort at this time is commanded by Lieut. Armstrong, a brother of Colonel Armstrong, who will later destroy Kittanning. The Indians, who have been lurking about this fort for some time, and knowing that Armstrong’s men are few in number, appear before the fort on July 22, sixty strong, and challenge the garrison to a fight; but this is declined by the commander in consequence of the weakness of his force. The Indians fire at and wounded one man, who had been a short way from it, yet he gets in safe; after which the Indians divide themselves into small parties, one of which attacks the plantation of one Baskins, near the Juniata, whom they murder, burn his house and carry off his wife and children. Another war party makes Hugh Carroll and his family prisoners.
~~~ On the 30th of July, 1756, Capt. Edward Ward, the commandant of Granville, marches from the fort with a detachment of men from the garrison, destined for Tuscarora Valley, where they are needed as guard to the settlers while they are engaged in harvesting their grain. The party under Capt. Ward embraces the greater part of the defenders of the fort, under command of Lieut. Edward Armstrong. Soon after the departure of Capt. Ward’s detachment, the fort is surrounded by the hostile force of French and Indians, who immediately make an attack through the afternoon and following night, but without being able to inflict much damage on the whites. Finally, after many hours have been spent in their unsuccessful attacks, the Indians avail themselves of the protection afforded by a deep ravine, up which they pass from the river bank to within twelve or fifteen yards of the fort, and from that secure position, succeed in setting fire to the logs and burning out a large hole, through which they fire on the defenders, killing the commanding officer, Lieut. Armstrong, and one private soldier and wounding three others.
~~~ They then demand the surrender of the fort and garrison, promising to spare their lives if the demand is acceded to. Upon this, a man named John Turner, previously a resident in the Buffalo valley, opens the gates and the besiegers at once storm through and take possession, capturing as prisoners twenty-two men, three women and a number of children. The fort is burned by the chief, Jacobs, by order of the French officer in command, and the savages then depart, driving their prisoners before them, heavily burdened with the plunder taken from the fort and the settlers’ houses, which they have robbed and burned.
~~~ On their arrival at the Indian rendezvous at Kittanning, all the prisoners are cruelly treated, and Turner, the man who had opened the gate at the fort to the savages, suffered the cruel death by burning at the stake, enduring the most horrible torment that could be inflicted upon him for a period of three hours, during which time red hot gun barrels were forced through parts of his body, his scalp torn from his head and burning splinters stuck in his flesh, until at last an Indian boy is held up for the purpose, who sinks a hatchet in his brain.
~~~ The destruction of Fort Granville exposes the whole western frontier to Indian incursions. Settlers flee in terror from the Juniata Valley, Sherman’s Valley, the Tuscarora Valley, and the valleys of the Conococheague and Conodoguinet.

1763: Siege of Fort Pitt . On August 1st, the Indians give up the siege of Fort Pitt (see July 28), and then march, most likely under the leadership of Guyasuta, to attack Colonel Bouquet, who is advancing to the relief of Fort Pitt, and to meet his little army at Bushy Run.

1781 Colonel Lochry’s Expedition: Colonel Archibald Lochry, having been charged by the Pennsylvania Supreme Executive Council to raise 300 militiamen from Westmoreland County to join the army of General George Rogers Clark (see June 18), who intends to capture Detroit, finds that, due to the dispute between Pennsylvania and Virginia, as well as the harried conditions on the Westmoreland frontier, that it is impossible to raise the number of men required of him. Thus, on August 1st, at Carnahan’s blockhouse eleven miles northwest of Hannastown, the force which assembles under Lochry’s command amounts to just 83 men.

~~~
Source:

Sipe, C. Hale. THE INDIAN WARS OF PENNSYLVANIA. ( Telegraph Press, 1929).

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On this date, July 28 . . .

1763: Siege of Fort Pitt . At daybreak, a general fire is opened from every side, and continues without intermission until night, and through several succeeding days. Meanwhile, the women and children are pent up in the crowded barracks, terror-stricken at the horrible din of the assailants, and watching the fire-arrows as they come sailing over the parapet, and lodging against the roofs and sides of the buildings. In every instance, the fire they kindl is extinguished. One of the garrison is killed, and seven wounded. Among the latter is Captain Ecuyer, who, freely exposing himself, receives an arrow in the leg.

 ~~~ Siege of Fort Ligonier.   Bouquet’s force leaves Fort Bedford (see July 25), following the Forbes Road, and starts through the mountain wilderness towards Fort Ligonier, fifty miles away. Scouts and rangers are sent far ahead and far on the flanks; woodsmen lead the advance, and protect the rear; the wagons and the drove of cattle are in the center of the column, many of the wagons carrying Highlanders too sick to walk. Through the summer heat, the tired army toils on over the Allegheny Mountain, then over the Laurel Hill Mountain into the Ligonier Valley, arriving at Fort Ligonier on August 2nd.

~~~
Source:

Sipe, C. Hale. THE INDIAN WARS OF PENNSYLVANIA. ( Telgraph Press, 1929).

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earlydaysinthebackcountry
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On this date, July 26 . . .

1763: At Fort Pitt, following a parley between Captain Simeon Ecuyer and Turtle Heart (see June 23), several weeks elapse without a determined attack. Then, on July 26th, Shingas, Turtle Heart and a few others approach the fort, one of them displaying a flag which, some months before, he had received as a present from Captain Ecuyer. On the strength of this token they are admitted to the fort. Shingas is the speaker, addressing Captain Ecuyer thus:
~~~ “We wish to hold fast the chain of friendship — that ancient chain which our forefathers held with their brethren, the English. You have let your end of the chain fall to the ground, but ours is still fast within our hands. Why do you complain that our young men have fired at your soldiers, and killed your cattle and horses? You yourselves are the cause of this. You marched your armies into our country, and built forts here, though we told you, again again, that we wished you to remove. My brothers, this land is ours, and not yours.”
~~~ Captain Ecuyer, in his reply, urges the very shallow pretense that the English have erected the forts west of the Alleghenies for the purpose of supplying the Indians with clothes and ammunition! He absolutely refuses to leave the place. He says to Shingas:
~~~ “I have warriors, provisions and ammunition to defend it [Fort Pitt] three years against all the Indians in the woods; and we shall never abandon it as long as a white man lives in America . . . This is our home … I tell you that, if any of you appear again about this fort, I will throw bombshells, which will burst and blow you to atoms, and fire cannon among you, loaded with a whole bag full of bullets.”
~~~ Thus ends the conference between Shingas and Captain Ecuyer, and the chiefs depart with much displeasure. Shingas has repeated the position and point of view of the Delawares and Shawnees; and Captain Ecuyer’s reply has at least the virtue of some frankness. The English never intend to keep the promises they had formally and solemnly made to Shingas, King Beaver and other great chiefs of the Ohio and Allegheny valleys, to withdraw east of the Allegheny Mountains upon the expulsion of the French from these valleys.
~~~ Shingas, King Beaver, Turtle Heart and other leaders of the Delawares, Shawnees and other tribes of the Ohio Valley demand that the English live up to their promises — promises which are the conditions upon which these Indians have agreed to withdraw from the French in these latter days of the French and Indian War.

~~~
Source:

Sipe, C. Hale. THE INDIAN WARS OF PENNSYLVANIA. ( Telgraph Press, 1929).

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Historical interpreter Melanie Swisher, while waiting for a ham and egg pudding to finishing baking in the dutch oven in the fire place, continued work on her long-term project, sewing a new flag for the fort. 

First known as the “Continental Colors”, it was later referred to as the “Grand Union” flag.  Though never actually sanctioned by the Continental Congress, this design is generally acknowledged by historians as the earliest-known flag of the United States, and was in use from 1775 to 1777. 

All in all, a most suitable activity for Flag Day—   though we were warned by our seamstress that anyone referring to her as “Little Betsy” behind her back, would lose out on his allotted portion of pudding.

Continental Colors

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On this date, June 14 . . .

1777: Far from the frontier, on the other side of the mountains in Philadelphia, the Second Continental Congress passes a resolution creating an official flag for the newly-formed United States, still fighting for its independence from Britain. It specifies that the flag “…be made of thirteen stripes, alternate red and white; that the union be thirteen stars, white in a blue field, representing a new Constellation.”

The resolution did not specify dimensions or arrangement for the stars, or whether they should have five or six points.   The earliest flag showing 13 stars was probably that designed by Francis Hopkinson in 1775, with stars arranged in five staggered rows.   The next earliest was the so-called “Betsy Ross flag” of 1777, with the stars arranged in a circle, which was the official flag during George Washington’s term.  There is no documentary evidence, however, that the flag made by Betsy Ross  embodied the circle-star design.  The association of that flag with Betsy Ross is not historical, but originated with a popular 19th-century painting. 

old glory

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photo by John Boback

The farmer & the blacksmith spent much of the day burning out a bowl in a large hominy block at Pricketts Fort on Wednesday.  It involved keeping the fire pit full of hot coals which they shoveled into the bowl of the block.  In order to burn down into the log itself, it was necessary, using a blowtube, to maintain a steady jet of air on the embers to keep the bottom of the bowl burning.  After several hours of making good progress, it was discovered that the underlying wood into which they had burned was too soft, and would be unlikely to hold up well under repeated poundings of the pestle.  

So it goes.   The search is on for a firmer block.

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earlydaysinthebackcountry

 

On this date, June 13 . . .

1774: [Extract of a letter from Pittsburg, dated June 13, 1774]:
“This morning we received certain accounts from a place called Ten Mile Creek, above Red Stone, that the Indians killed & scalped one Francis McClure, who formerly lived at Weilin (Wheeling) Creek, down the river, & shot one Samuel Kinkade through the arm, but he got away.”

~~~
Source:

Thwaites, Reuben Gold & Louise Phelps Kellogg, DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF DUNMORE’S WAR, 1774. (Draper Manuscripts, Wisconsin Historical Society, 1905).

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earlydaysinthebackcountry

On this date, June 12 . . .

1774: [Extract of a letter from Fort Pitt, dated June 12, 1774]:
“We have great reason to be no longer in suspense concerning a war with the Indians, as they have already been guilty of several massacres; on Saturday the 4th . . . were killed & scalped by them one Benjamin Spear, his wife & six children, on Duncard Creek; and the Monday following one Henry Wall, within sight of a fort that is built on Muddy Creek; one Keener, near the same place; and one Procter, near Grave Creek; there was also one Campbell, lately from Lancaster County, killed & scalped at New Comer’s-Town by the Mingoes.”

~~~
Sources:

Sipe, C. Hale. THE INDIAN WARS OF PENNSYLVANIA. ( Telgraph Press, 1929).

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earlydaysinthebackcountry

 

On this date, June 11 . . .

1756:  On June 11th or 12th, Bingham’s Fort, the stockaded home of Samuel Bingham (or Bigham), in Tuscarora Township, Juniata County, is attacked and burned by a band of Indians led by the Delaware chief, King Beaver. All the occupants of the fort are either killed or captured.  The captives are marched to Kittanning and from there to Fort Duquesne, where they are parceled out and adopted by Indian families.

1774:   A militia company of rangers, led by Captain Francis McClure and Lt. Samuel Kinkade, pursues the Mingo Chief Logan along Ten Mile Creek, a tributary of the Monongahela in Westmoreland County (later Greene County, Pennsylvania). McClure and Kinkade, being somewhat in advance of their men, are ambushed by Logan’s band. McClure is killed and Kinkade shot through the arm. Despite his wound, Kinkade manages to escape.

1776:   Eleven-year-old Elizabeth Foulks is captured by Wyandots near Cross Roads, Pennsylvania and is adopted into the tribe.

~ ~ ~   The Second Continental Congress appoints a committee to draft a declaration of independence from Great Britain. The task of composing the document falls to Thomas Jefferson.

1782:   During an expedition of 480 Continental horsemen against the British and members of the Mingo, Shawnee, Ottawa and Delaware tribes near the Wyandot town of Sandusky, Ohio, the Continentals, seeing the enemy reinforced by 140 Shawnee, decide to retreat during the night of June 4-5. During the retreat, a number of the Continentals panic and scatter, some of them dying at the hands of Indians, and others becoming lost. After wandering for two days, the stragglers are captured by a band of Delawares under Captain Pipe, who orders them burned at the stake. Also captured during the confusion is the expedition’s commander, Col. William Crawford. The main force of Continentals, meanwhile, led by Colonel Williamson, is attacked by a force of Shawnees and Delawares. The Continentals drive off the attackers, and make their escape to to Mingo Bottom. On June 11, Colonel Crawford is tortured by the Indians for four hours and finally burnt to death at the stake.

~~~
Sources:

Hancks, Larry K. THE EMIGRANT TRIBES, WYANDOT, DELAWARE & SHAWNEE: A Chronology. (Kansas City, Kansas: 1998).

Sipe, C. Hale. THE INDIAN WARS OF PENNSYLVANIA. ( Telgraph Press, 1929).

Thwaites, Reuben Gold & Louise Phelps Kellogg, DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF DUNMORE’S WAR, 1774. (Draper Manuscripts, Wisconsin Historical Society, 1905).

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The original play “Whispers in the Wind” will return to Pricketts Fort Cemetery, Sunday & Monday eventings, May 26 and 27, 7 pm.

Hear the voices of those who lived and died on the frontier through an historically-based performance written by Fairmont State University students under the direction of Dr. Francene Kirk.

The play will be performed by actors from the Town and Gown Theatre Company. Seating is provided in the cemetery. Tickets are $4 per person and seating is limited to 60 per show.

 Among the historical figures depicted are Jacob Prickett Sr. (b. 1722); Zackquill Morgan (1735-1795); James Chew (1745-1784); Isaiah Prickett (d. 1774);  John Champe (1757-1798); Charity Prickett (d. 1833);  and Jon T. Fimple (1827-1883).

Attendees will begin by gathering at the park’s Visitor Center and will be guided on a walking path to the cemetery for the one-hour production.  There will be seats provided in the cemetery but walking is required. 

For  Information call :      (304)363-3030 or info@prickettsfort.org

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Visitors to Pricketts Fort on Friday and Saturday, May 24 & 25, will witness an archaic activity from the eighteenth century which, in its essentials, has changed little from Biblical times: the manufacture of a woolen garment from sheep to finished product

First, the shearing of the sheep with hand shears, resulting at the end of the process, in a pile of shorn wool known as the “fleece”.

Next, after the fleece is thoroughly washed and dried, the wool is “picked” — that is, the “locks” of wool are separated into fluff, which prepares it for carding and permits any extraneous debris to fall from the wool.shearingsheep9

Next, the wool is “carded”, which pulls the fibers straight and parallel.

The carded wool is then laid carefully into a basket, in readiness for spinning.

The carded wool is then spun (twisted) into one long continuous strand and wound onto a spindle, after which the spun wool is transferred from spindle to shuttle, in readiness for
weaving.

spinningFinally, at the loom, the weaver adds “woof” to the “warp” by means of sliding the loaded shuttle (woof) back and forth through the lengthwise threads (warp), a basically simple process which is actually remarkably complex.

School tours are welcome on Friday. Regular admission applies.

judyatticus

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Harriet Tubman, Library of CongressIlene Evans will portray Harriet Tubman (1820-1913), leader of the Underground Railroad, at Prickett’s Fort State Park on Sunday, May 19th at 2 pm. The program will take place in the park’s Visitor Center and is free and open to all. 

      Tubman was born into slavery in Maryland but escaped through the Underground Railroad in 1849. She became the most famous leader of that network, aiding slaves in their escape to free states and Canada. When the Civil War erupted her underground experiences and knowledge of covert operations made her an invaluable resource to Federal officers. She served as a spy, nurse, scout, and guide for Union troops and was present at the ill-fated assault of Fort Wagner by the 54th Massachusetts in South Carolina.

     Harriet Tubman is one of the many available character presentations offered through the West Virginia Humanities Council’s History Alive! program as a means of exploring history by interaction with noteworthy historical figures. These programs provide audiences with the opportunity to question those who have shaped our history.

     Historical characterization is the vehicle for this program. Humanities scholars have carefully researched the writings, speeches and biographies of the characters they portray and whenever possible, use their original words.

     The West Virginia Humanities Council is a private, not-for-profit organization dedicated to providing educational programs in the humanities for all West Virginians. For over thirty years the Council has been providing educational programs in the humanities across the state.

     This program is available to interested nonprofit groups such as libraries, museums, and historical societies. For more information call The West Virginia Humanities Council at (304) 346-8500 or visit their web site at: WWW.WVHUMANITIES.ORG

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barnmusic                                                             
Enjoy a full day– this Saturday, May 11– of traditional music with musicians scheduled to perform inside the Visitor Center, and informal jamming in the park and on the porch of the Civil War-era “Job Prickett House” .   No charge for the entertainment. 

As usual, admission to the frontier-era fort and tours inside the Job Prickett House require a ticket.

Hours 10am to 4pm.

For more information call (304)363-3030 or email info@prickettsfort.org

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Once again this year, from April 4 to 7, Pricketts Fort will offer the School of the Longhunter: a weekend encampment with seminars on longhunter skills for the 18th century interpreter, re-enactor or history enthusiast.

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2013 School of the Longhunter Agenda

Thursday, April 4

12 – 5 pm ARRIVAL AND SET UP

*CHECK IN VISITOR CENTER

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Friday, April 5

9 – 10:30 am, Willy Frankfort: FORT COX DIG

10:30 – 12 noon, Bill Graham and Ed Robey: Making Hominy

12 noon – 1 pm, LUNCH ON YOUR OWN

1 – 2:30 pm, Andrew Gaerte:  Buttons and Buckles

2:30 – 4 pm, Alan Gutchess: A Longrifle by Any Other Name

6 – 7:30 pm, FORT FEAST (Please bring a covered dish)

7:30 pm, 18th century musical entertainment by Morgan’s Glade

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Saturday, April 6

9 – 10:30 am, Mark Sage: The Life of Daniel Boone: A Window into America’s Westward Expansion

10:30 – 12 noon,  Doug Wood: Hokoleshkwa’s 1763 Blitzkrieg : The Most Successful Campaign of a War Lost

12 noon – 1 pm, LUNCH ON YOUR OWN

1 – 2:30 pm, Bill Schneider & Kye Jaroz:  GAMES

2:30 – 4pm, (to be announced)

4 – 5:30 pm, (to be announced)

5:30 – 7:30 pm, DINNER ON YOUR OWN

7:30 pm, BENEFIT AUCTION (Please bring a quality period item to be donated)

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Sunday, April 7

8:30 – 9 am, Nathan Weaver: SUNDAY SERVICE

12 noon, DEPART FOR HOME

Schedule subject to change.

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2013 School of the Longhunter Fees

Pre-Registration Fees:

PFMF Members $50.00

Non-members $60.00

(Fees at the door $65.00)

Cost includes camping and seminar sessions, entertainment, Fort Feast and Benefit Auction.

Sutler Fee $50.00 (must be pre-registered) This entitles the sutler to have one helper/camper stay with him/her. Sutler can have one store tent and one camping tent. Helper must stay in one of these tents. Price includes Fort Feast for the sutler and helper. Helper must be listed on the pre-registration form.

Sutler & Seminar Sutlers who want to attend the seminar must pay an additional $50.00 fee.

Camper Fee (not attending seminar) $20.00 includes Fort Feast.

Visitors $10.00 Visitors who want to stay after 5:00 p.m. must pay a fee of $10.00 to the Visitors center prior to closing. All visitors must leave the park by 11:00 p.m. This is good for all evenings of the seminar. Fort Feast tickets may be purchased for $10.00 if desired. All such paying visitors must be in 18th century period clothing.

Children under 15 accompanying campers or seminar attendees will not be charged for camping, but will be charged $5.00 each for the Fort Feast.

The School of the Longhunter is limited to the first 100 registrants.

For more information, call (304) 363-3030

To register online, click here.

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