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School of the Longhunter

The 20th Annual School of the Longhunter returns to Pricketts Fort this weekend, April 3-6.  Speakers for this year’s school include Mike Galban, Mark Hersee, Matt Wulff, Heather Schneider, Mark Baker, Suzanne Larner, Bill Schneider, Kye Jaroz, and Dave Dykema.  Topics to be covered include Tumplines, Simon Girty, Military Campaigns on the Frontier, Taverns, Mad Anne Bailey, Frontier Games & other topics yet to be announced.

Commerical sutlers selling period items will also be present.

For full details, including visitor ticket prices, registration & sutler fees, and detailed schedule, consult this year’s School of the Longhunter brochure, downloadable as a pdf here.

Additional information is available at 304 363-3030.

   muzzleloadingshow
  The public is invited to attend a Muzzleloading and Accoutrements Trade Show featuring artisans who specialize in 18th century firearms including: Indian Quillwork, Knives, Axes, Guns, Powder Horns, Accoutrements, Bags, and Frontier Art. Many of the artisans are Contemporary Longrifle Association (CLA) members including: Greg Bray, Pat Davis, William “Wild Willy” Frankfort, Joe Scott, Bill Schneider, and other vendors including Keith Casteel, Ed Rayl, Marty Ewing and Rob Gorrell.
       The event takes place February 21 to 23, 2014. Public hours are Friday 1 to 6 pm, Saturday 9 am to 5 pm, Sunday 9 am to 3 pm. A $3 admission will be collected at the door with proceeds to benefit the Pricketts Fort Memorial Foundation.

Prickett’s Fort State Park is located 2 miles off I-79 at exit 139 in Fairmont, West Virginia. For more information about this or other events visit www.prickettsfort.org or contact (304) 363-3030.

cm1 The 18th-century Christmas Market this year was not for the faint-hearted.  Some seriously disagreeable winter weather, especially on Friday and Sunday, kept all but the most intrepid away.   But for all that, the Market, especially on Saturday, saw a steady stream of visitors (most of whom got here in 4-wheel-drive vehicles).

What follows below are some photos from inside the fort, where all the wares on offer were 18th-century period items– not antiques (for the most part) but new items that one could have found in a Colonial-era store or trading post, made by hand using 18th-century tools & techniques: tomahawks, flintlock muskets, scrimshawed powderhorns & flasks, hand-wrought ironware, redware pottery, handwoven clothing items, etc.

Those intrepid visitors who dared brave the Siberian-like expanse of wind and snow between the Visitors Center and the Fort not only had such excellent goods to choose among, but were rewarded with cups of hot wassail and the sight of a merrily burning Yule log.

The photos below were all taken in quiet moments within the Fort.  Not shown are numerous merchants inside the Visitors Center.   As I was manning the Trading Post all three days, ringing up sales, toting in firewood & even tending to the sheep, I never had the leisure to stroll among the indoor merchants snapping pictures.  So what you see here are the hardier sutlers who weren’t adverse to a little snow & wind.  Multiply their offerings by two or three times and you will have a fair idea what a goodly amount of fine handcrafted period merchandise was available at a market which is a once-yearly event and completely unique in the region.

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Join us for a unique shopping experience in a historic environment. Artisans will demonstrate and feature works for sale in the Fort’s Visitor Center, as well as the historic area. Enjoy hot wassail and period decorations in the historic fort. Shoppers will not be charged to enter the historic area, but a guided, historic tour will be offered by costumed interpreters for visitors on a set schedule for half-price admission.

The Market will run from December 6-8, Friday and Saturday from 10am to 4pm, and Sunday from 12 noon to 4pm.

earlydaysinthebackcountry
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On this date, October 9 . . .

1755:: George Croghan writes from Aughwick to Charles Swaine at Shippensburg that a friendly Indian, coming from the Ohio, warned him that one hundred and sixty Indians were ready to set out for the Pennsylvania settlements. This Indian gave it as his opinion that these Indians would attack the Province as soon as they could persuade the Indians on the Susquehanna to join them. Writes Croghan: “He desires me, as soon as I see the Indians remove from Susquehanna back to Ohio, to shift my quarters, for he says that the French will, if possible, lay all the back frontiers in ruins this Winter.” In a postscript to this letter, Croghan asks for guns and powder, and says that he is building a stockade, which he expects to complete by the middle of the next week.

~~~
Source:

Sipe, C. Hale. THE INDIAN WARS OF PENNSYLVANIA. (Telegraph Press, 1929).

festivalcorn

Pricketts Fort will host a Harvest Festival this weekend, October 12-13 (Saturday 10am to 4pm
& Sunday 12 noon to 4pm). The festival will focus on 18th century foods through demonstrations and displays about wild game, food production, harvest, preservation, cooking, customs and manners.

Inside the Visitors Center, antiques vendors will be hawking their wares.

Regular admission is required for the historic attractions and festival.

For more information call the office at (304)363-3030.

earlydaysinthebackcountry
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On this date, October 6 . . .

1764: Bouquet’s Expedition of 1764, (continued): (see Oct 5). Bouquet’s army crosses the Beaver River, taking the Indian trail which leads to the villages on the Tuscarawas, crossing the headwaters of Little Beaver and Yellow creeks.

~~~
Source:

Sipe, C. Hale. THE INDIAN WARS OF PENNSYLVANIA. (Telegraph Press, 1929).

earlydaysinthebackcountry
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On this date, October 5 . . .

1764: Bouquet’s Expedition of 1764, (continued): (see Oct 4). Bouquet’s army passes through Logstown, which is deserted.

~~~
Source:

Sipe, C. Hale. THE INDIAN WARS OF PENNSYLVANIA. (Telegraph Press, 1929).

earlydaysinthebackcountry
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On this date, October 4 . . .

1764: Bouquet’s Expedition of 1764, (continued): (see Oct 1). The Virginia troops having arrived and Bouquet now having
an army of about fifteen hundred men, the march is started westward from Fort Pitt on October 4th, the Virginia troops leading the way.

1790: General Harmar’s Defeat (continued). Harmar’s army takes up the march from Turkey Creek (see October 3) towards the Indian towns on the Maumee and its tributaries, the St. Joseph and the St. Mary. The principal town Harmar intends to attack is the Miami town, called Kekionga, or Omee, located where the city of Fort Wayne, Indiana, now stands.

~~~
Source:

Sipe, C. Hale. THE INDIAN WARS OF PENNSYLVANIA. (Telegraph Press, 1929).

earlydaysinthebackcountry
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On this date, October 3 . . .

1790: General Harmar’s Defeat (continued). Having left Fort Washington three days before (see Sept 30), General Harmar joins Colonel John Hardin at Turkey Creek.

~~~
Source:

Sipe, C. Hale. THE INDIAN WARS OF PENNSYLVANIA. (Telegraph Press, 1929).

earlydaysinthebackcountry
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On this date, October 1 . . .

1764: Bouquet’s Expedition of 1764, (continued): (see Sept 17) On October 1st, two Six Nation warriors came to Fort Pitt, and endeavored to persuade the commander not to march into the Indian country, owing to the smallness of his force and the lateness of the season. Believing that these warriors were actuated by a desire simply to retard the expedition. Bouquet sent them to inform the Delawares and Shawnees that he proposed to move immediately into their country to chastise them unless they should speedily agree to whatever conditions of peace he should impose upon them.

1778: General McIntosh’s Expedition against the Tuscarawas: The plan of General Mcintosh for the protection of the western frontier was to capture Detroit. Immediately after the treaty with the Delawares, he began preparations for an expedition against this place. About October 1st, 1778, his army of thirteen hundred troops, five hundred of whom were regulars of the Eighth Pennsylvania Regiment and the Thirteenth Virginia Regiment, went from Fort Pitt down the Ohio to the mouth of the Beaver, where four weeks were spent in erecting Fort Mcintosh, located on the high bluff overlooking the Ohio, at the site of the present town of Beaver.

~~~
Source:

Sipe, C. Hale. THE INDIAN WARS OF PENNSYLVANIA. (Telegraph Press, 1929).

earlydaysinthebackcountry
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On this date, September 30 . . .

1790: General Harmar’s Defeat. Realizing that the only way to put a stop to the Indian raids from Ohio into Western Pennsylvania, was to carry the war into their country, the Federal Government sent troops down the Ohio in the summer and autumn of 1789, and erected Fort Washington, where Cincinnatti now stands. General Josiah Harmar arrived at that place on December 29th, with three hundred regular troops, and took command. Leaving Fort Washington with one hundred regulars, he joined General Scott with two hundred and thirty Kentucky volunteers, and marched into the Scioto country, but was unable to engage the Indians in battle, as they abandoned their villages and fled. The troops then returned to Fort Washington, having accomplished nothing definite.
~~~ The Indians continued their raids into Pennsylvania, Kentucky and West Virginia during the summer of 1790. Then President Washington called upon Pennsylvania, Virginia and Kentucky to raise militia to invade the Ohio country.
~~~ Now, On September 30th, General Harmar leaves Fort Washington with a force of between fourteen and fifteen hundred men and sets out towards Turkey Creek, where he is to join Colonel John Hardin.

~~~
Source:

Sipe, C. Hale. THE INDIAN WARS OF PENNSYLVANIA. (Telegraph Press, 1929).

earlydaysinthebackcountry
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On this date, September 22 . . .

1758: Post’s First Mission to the Western Delawares, (continued). Post arrives at Fort Augusta on September 22nd. At Harris’ Ferry, he sends Pisquetomen and Thomas Hickman, a friendly Delaware, on to Philadelphia to deliver the peace belt and message
of the Western Delawares, while he goes on to see General Forbes, who is at Raystown (Bedford) with the main part of his
army.

~~~
Source:

Sipe, C. Hale. THE INDIAN WARS OF PENNSYLVANIA. (Telegraph Press, 1929).

earlydaysinthebackcountry
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On this date, September 19 . . .

1758: Post’s First Mission to the Western Delawares, (continued). Travelling eastward across the mountains from Kuskuskies towards Fort Augusta, Post arrives at the Great Island (Lock Haven), on September 19th. There he meets a war party of twenty Delawares and Mingoes, returning from the settlements with five prisoners and one scalp. Post informs them where he has been and what he accomplished, whereupon the warriors say that, if they had known this, they would not have gone to war.

~~~
Source:

Sipe, C. Hale. THE INDIAN WARS OF PENNSYLVANIA. (Telegraph Press, 1929).

The weather could not have been more perfect for Archaeology Day at Pricketts Fort last Saturday, Sept 14. Some random shots from the day’s activities are shown below. In addition, there were a number of archaeological exhibitions inside the Visitors Center, and the usual living history activities inside the fort.

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Native interpreter Aaron Bosnick weaving a fish net.

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Native interpreters Aaron Bosnick and Todd ____ weaving fish nets.

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Native interpreter Aaron Bosnick finger-weaving a sash.

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Native camp scene.

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Native interpreter Ed Robey fleshing a deer hide with a wood-handled flint scraper.

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Herk Conner knapping a large piece of flint with a moose antler billet.

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A selection of Herk Conner’s points, which he knapped himself.

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Sometime after midday, several interpreters sit for a spell in the Meeting House inside the fort to partake of a hearty hearth-cooked meal of goose, sweet potato, pumpernickle bread & Marlborough Pie, prepared by Cordelia Spencer and Judy Wilson.

earlydaysinthebackcountry
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On this date, September 17 . . .

1764: Bouquet’s Expedition of 1764, (continued): (see Aug 13) Leaving Fort Loudon, Bouquet’s army marches over the mountains to Fort Pitt, following the Forbes Road. Near Bedford, a soldier is captured. Later in the march of the army, a few stragglers are killed by lurking Indians. The army arrives at Fort Pitt on September 17th, and soon thereafter a party of Delaware chiefs appear on the western bank of the Allegheny, pretending to be deputies sent by their nation to confer with Bouquet. After some hesitation, three of them come to the fort and, after being closely questioned, are unable to give a satisfactory account of their mission. Colonel Bouquet has two of them detained as hostages, Captain Pipe and Captain John, and sends the other back to his nation with the message that he proposes to pay no attention to the peace that the Delawares and Shawnees have made with Colonel Bradstreet, but will instead march his army against their towns. He also sends word with this chief that, if two messengers, which he has proposed to send to Colonel Bradstreet, are harmed in either going or coming, he will put Captain Pipe and Captain John to death. The liberated chief faithfully performs his mission.

1778: Westward March of the Eighth Pennsylvania Regiment & The Alliance with the Delawares, (continued): When Colonel Brodhead and his troops reached Fort Pitt, on September 10th, they found the wigwams of the Delawares pitched near the shore of the Allegheny a short distance above the fort. The conference began on September 12th, and now, on the 17th, the treaty is signed.
~~~ Besides White Eyes, the Delawares are represented by Killbuck, successor to New Comer of the Turtle Clan, Captain Pipe, successor to Custaloga, of the Wolf Clan, and Wingenund, the Delaware “wise man.” These three chiefs appear at the councils, in all their gaudy attire, painted, feathered, and beaded; while General Mcintosh and his
staff officers attend in new uniforms. The interpreter is Job Chilloway, a Delaware from the Susquehanna, who has learned the English language from having lived for a number of years among the white people.
~~~ General Lewis advises the Delaware chiefs of his intention to send an army against the British at Detroit, and asks the permission of the Delawares for the army to pass through the territory over which they claim control, bounded on the east by the Ohio and Allegheny, and on the west by the Hocking and Sandusky.
~~~ By the terms of the treaty as finally concluded, all offenses are mutually forgiven; a perpetual friendship is pledged; each party agrees to assist the other in any just war; the Delawares give permission for an American army to pass through their territory, and agree to furnish meat, corn, warriors and guides for the army. The United States agrees to erect and garrison a fort, within the Delaware country, for the protection of the old men, women, and children; and each party agrees to punish offenses committed by citizens of the other, according to a system to be arranged later. The United States promises the establishment of fair and honest trade relations; and lastly, the United States guarantees the integrity of the Delaware nation, and promises to admit it as a state of the American Union, “provided nothing contained in this article be considered as conclusive until it meets the approbation of congress.” With reference to the promise to admit the Delaware nation as a state of the Union,
the commissioners must know that this is an impossibility.
~~~ But the guileless White Eyes never suspects that he and his people are being imposed upon. Says he: “Brothers, we are become one people. We [the Delawares], are at a loss to express our thoughts, but we hope soon to convince you by our actions of the sincerity of our hearts. We now inform you that as many of our warriors as can possibly be spared will join you and go with you.”
~~~ This treaty is signed by the Delaware chiefs. White Eyes, Captain Pipe and John Killbuck. On the part of the United States, it is signed by General Andrew Lewis and his brother Thomas Lewis. It is witnessed by General Lachlan Mcintosh, Colonel Daniel Brodhead, Colonel William Crawford, Colonel John Gibson, Major Arthur Graham, Captain Joseph L. Finley, Captain John Finley, John Campbell, John Stephenson and Benjamin Mills. Its proceedings are found in the manuscript letter book of Colonel George Morgan, then Indian Agent at Fort Pitt.
~~~ The great courage of White Eyes in forming this alliance with the Americans is seen when it is recalled that all the other western tribes are on the side of the British, and, for some time have been endeavoring, by solicitation and threats, to draw all the Delawares into a British alliance. Colonel Hamilton, the “hair-
buyer” is still at the height of his career in sending war parties against the frontier settlements.

1791: General St. Clair’s Defeat:
~~~ President Washington determined to send another army against the Western Indians, and chose for its leader General Arthur St. Clair, of Westmoreland County, Governor of the Northwest Territory. Twenty-three hundred regulars and militia from Western Pennsylvania, Virginia and Kentucky assembled at Fort Washington.
~~~ “Beware of a surprise,” warned Washington to St.Clair, as the latter left Philadelphia to take charge of the army, many of whose soldiers were recruits from the large towns, enervated by idleness and debauchery, and unfit for the rigors of warfare against the Indians.
~~~ On September 17th, 1791, the army leaves Ludlow Station, six miles from Fort Washington (Cincinnati), and proceeds slowly to the Great Miami, where an advance detachment has erected Fort Hamilton named in honor of Alexander Hamilton.

~~~
Source:

Sipe, C. Hale. THE INDIAN WARS OF PENNSYLVANIA. (Telegraph Press, 1929).

earlydaysinthebackcountry
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On this date (sometime in mid-September) . . .

1774, Logan’s Uprising (continued): (see July 21) Once more Logan goes on the war-path, this time setting out with a few chosen braves to the Holston and Clinch Rivers in Southwestern Virginia, where he has been informed that Captain Cresap makes his home. He and his warriors reach the neighborhood in the middle of September, where on Reedy Creek, a branch of the Holston, they kill the whole family of John Robertson except one young boy, whom they carry into captivity.
~~~ All circumstances point to this murder as being committed by Logan, inasmuch as the note which Logan addresses to Captain Cresap is found tied to a club in the house of the unfortunate settler, where, on the floor, are found the dead bodies of the family.

~~~
Source:

Sipe, C. Hale. THE INDIAN WARS OF PENNSYLVANIA. (Telgraph Press, 1929).

earlydaysinthebackcountry
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On this date, September 14 . . .

1758: ~~~ Grant’s Defeat : The following account of the siege is from Callahan’s 1923 History of West Virginia:
~~~ The most disasterous event connected with General Forbes’ advance against Fort Duquesne is the defeat of Major James Grant, of the Highlanders (where the Allegheny Court House will later stand), in the city of Pittsburgh.
~~~ Major Grant, with a force of thirty-seven officers and eight hundred and five privates, is sent from Ligonier by Bouquet to reconnoiter the fort and adjacent country. Grant had begged Bouquet for permission to make this expedition. Grant’s instructions are not to approach too near the fort and not to attack it. The wilderness between Ligonier and Fort Duquesne is filled with Indians constantly watching the movements of Grant’s little army; yet he succeeds in coming within sight of the fort without being discovered. Late at night he draws up his troops on the brow of the hill in the city of Pittsburgh, which will later bear his name.
~~~ Not having met with either French or Indians on the march, and believing from the stillness of the enemy’s quarters that the forces in the fort are small. Grant at once determines to make an attack. Accordingly, two officers and fifty men are directed to approach the fort and fall upon the French and Indians that might be outside. They see none and are not challenged by the sentinels; and as they return, they set fire to a large storehouse, but the fire is extinguished.
~~~ At the break of day on the 14th, Grant sends Major Andrew Lewis with two hundred regulars and Virginia volunteers to take a position about a half mile back, and lie in ambush where they have left their baggage. Four hundred men are posted along the hill facing the fort, while Captain McDonald’s company, with drums beating and bagpipes playing, marches toward the fort in order to draw out the garrison. The music of the drums and bagpipes arouses the garrison
from their slumber, and both the French and Indians sally out in great numbers, the latter probably led by Guyasuta.
~~~ The British officers marshall their men according to European tactics. Major Lewis, at the beginning of the attack, leaves Captain Bullitt, with fifty Virginians, to guard the baggage, and hastens with the main part of his men to the scene of action. Lewis engages in a hand-to-hand struggle with an Indian warrior, whom he kills, but is compelled to surrender to a French officer.
~~~ The French and Indians separate into three divisions. The first two are sent under the cover of the banks of the Monongahela and Allegheny to surround the main body of Grant’s troops, while the third is delayed awhile to give the others time, and then line up before the fort as if exhibiting the whole strength of the garrison. This plan works admirably. Captain McDonald is obliged to fall back on the main body, and at the same time, Grant finds himself flanked by the detachments on both sides.
~~~ A desperate struggle ensues. The Highlanders, exposed to the enemy’s fire without cover, fall in great numbers. The provincials, concealing themselves among the trees, make a good defense for a while, but not being supported and being overpowered by numbers, are compelled to fall back. The result is that Grant’s forces are overwhelmingly and ingloriously defeated. Many of his brave troops are driven into the Allegheny River and drowned. The total loss is two hundred and seventy killed, forty-two wounded, and a number taken prisoner. Among the latter are Major Grant, Major Lewis and about nineteen other officers. The French account will later state that five officers and one hundred men are captured and that the French loss is only eight killed and eight wounded.
~~~ Captain Bullitt rallies some of the fugitives and, dispatching some of the most valuable baggage with the best horse, makes a barricade of the wagons, behind which he posts his men. After having finished the plunder of the battlefield, the Indians hasten in pursuit of the fugitives. They attack Bullitt’s men, who open a destructive fire upon them from behind the baggage wagons. This checks them for a time, but they soon come with greater numbers. Then Bullitt and his men hold out the signal of surrender, and advance as if to lay down their arms. When within eight yards of the Indians, Bullitt’s men suddenly level their rifles, pour in a destructive fire, and charge with the
bayonet. The Indians then flee in order to get reinforcements. Bullitt takes advantage of this check to collect some of the wounded and fugitives, with whom he hastens back to the camp at Ligonier. The Highlanders and the Virginians are those who fight the best and suffer the most in this bloody engagement. Six officers and sixty-two privates of the Virginia forces lie dead on the field. The road back to Ligonier is strewn with the dead.

~~~
Source:

Sipe, C. Hale. THE INDIAN WARS OF PENNSYLVANIA. (Telegraph Press, 1929).

earlydaysinthebackcountry
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On this date, September 13 . . .

1758: Post’s First Mission to the Western Delawares, (continued).  Having left Kuskuskies on Sept 7, Post and his companions hasten on their way over the mountains to Eastern Pennsylvania, bearing the peace belt of the Western Delawares. During the night of September 13th, at a point near Punxsutawney, rustling is heard in the bushes near their camp, whereupon Post’s Indian companions keep watch, one after another, all the rest of the night. “In the morning,” Post will later write, “I asked them what made them afraid. They said I knew nothing ; the French had set a great price on my head; and they knew there was gone out a great scout to lie in wait for me.”

1782: Attack on Rice’s Fort:   A band of about seventy Indians attacks the blockhouse of Abraham Rice, on Buffalo Creek, in what is now Donegal Township, Washington County. The attack continues from two o’clock in the afternoon until two o’clock the following morning. Although the little fort is defended by only six men, yet the Indians are unable to capture it. One of the defenders, George Felebaum, is shot through the brain while peering through a loop-hole, and four of the Indians are killed. As the Indian band is returning to the Ohio River, they meet two settlers who were on their way to the relief of Rice’s stockade, and kill them. The attack on Rice’s Fort is the last invasion of Western Pennsylvania by a large body of Indians. The Indians who attack Rice’s Fort are part of a larger force which also unsuccessfully attacks Fort Henry, at Wheeling, West Virginia, on September 11th and 12th.

~~~
Source:

Sipe, C. Hale. THE INDIAN WARS OF PENNSYLVANIA. (Telegraph Press, 1929).

earlydaysinthebackcountry
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On this date, September 11 . . .

1782: ~~~ Siege of Fort Henry: The following account of the siege is from Callahan’s 1923 History of West Virginia:
~~~ “The last siege of Fort Henry occurred in September, 1782, and has sometimes been regarded as the last battle of the Revolutionary. The attack was made by forty irregular British soldiers (Butler’s Rangers) and 230 Indians (Wyandotts & Delawares) under the command of Captain Bradt, who apparently did not regard the surrender of Cornwallis as the end of the war. The attack was so sudden that there was barely time for the people to repair to the fort after they had received warning from the commandant. The enemy began by the demand of an immediate surrender, which was refused. Having learned by experience that rushes against the stockade walls were not likely to be successful, the enemy remained beyond rifle range until dark. During this delay the garrison was fortunate in receiving small reinforcements from the captain and crew of a boat from Pittsburgh which was loaded with cannon balls for the garrison at Lewisville.
~~~ During the night the Indians tried more than a score of times to set fire to the fort by firing hemp placed against the palisades, but the hemp was too damp to burn. They next tried to break in the gate by assaults with logs but were unsuccessful. They then decided to burn the cabin of Colonel Zane (located near the fort), from which they had been annoyed during the attack by shots fired by Colonel Zane and his family, but again their attempt failed.
~~~ The story of Elizabeth Zane’s bravery in this connection is well known. Ebenezer Zane’s cabin stood very near to the fort. He considered it near enough to be successfully defended and he was anxious to hold it, as it was believed that the enemy would burn all the houses in their power as they had done in 1777. Two white men and a negro remained in the cabin with Zane. While the attack was delayed, the discovery was made that a keg of powder which was needed in the fort had been left in Zane’s cabin. To get it while scores of Indians were within shooting distance was extremely perilous, but several volunteers offered themselves for the service. Among them was Elizabeth, daughter of Ebenezer Zane, and upon her insistence she was sent for the powder. As she ran from the fort across the open space to the cabin, the Indians saw her but refrained from firing, simply exclaiming contemptuously, “A squaw.” But when she emerged from the cabin door a few minutes later with the powder in a tablecloth that had been tied around her waist by her father, the purpose of her mission was suspected and bullets struck all about her as she ran, but she escaped harm and safely entered the fort.
~~~ Finally the Indians jeered at what they supposed was a wooden cannon (but what was a real cannon) mounted on one of the bastions where they could easily see it. Doubting the genuineness of the cannon they challenged the garrison to fire it. Then, taking possession of an empty cabin near the fort, they proceeded to make night hideous with a war dance. Suddenly in the midst of their dancing a cannon ball broke a joist and precipitated the entire g crowd of Indians to the floor below. Instigated by the repeated firing of the cannon thereafter they decided to make a cannon of their own for reply. Improvising a siege gun from a hollow log, wrapping it with chains from a neighboring blacksmith’s shop, and loading it with cannon balls taken from the boat at the river’s edge, they aimed it at the gate of the fort and applied fire to the powder. Discouraged by the result of the explosion which left some of them wounded by splinters and did no harm to the fort, they retired and unsuccessfully turned their attention to Rice ‘s fort in the vicinity.”

~~~
Source:

Callahan, James Morton, The History of West Virginia, Old and New (1923).

Sipe, C. Hale. THE INDIAN WARS OF PENNSYLVANIA. (Telegraph Press, 1929).

earlydaysinthebackcountry
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On this date, September 10 . . .

1778: Westward March of the Eighth Pennsylvania Regiment, (continued): Having left Carlisle on August 13th, the Eighth Pennsylvania Regiment marches by way of Bedford, Ligonier and Hannastown to Fort Pitt, where it arrives on September 10th, almost three months on the road from Valley Forge. Says Hassler, in his “Old Westmoreland”:

“After it [the Eighth Pennsylvania Regiment] reached Bedford, it was in its own country. From that place to Pittsburgh, all along the line of march, there were many joyful reunions, and doubtless the travel-stained soldiers were well served with food and drink as they passed through Westmoreland. Yet many tearful women sat at the wayside cabins and sad-faced parents looked in vain for the familiar figures of beloved sons. Nearly three hundred of the stout frontier youths who marched away to the East to help Washington did not return to the defense of their own borderland.”

~~~
Source:

Sipe, C. Hale. THE INDIAN WARS OF PENNSYLVANIA. (Telegraph Press, 1929).

Ostenacopainting A portrayal of one of the most widely renowned and honored of Cherokee chiefs, the mid-eighteenth century orator and warrior Ostenaco, by historian and re-enactor Doug Wood, will take place at the Pricketts Fort Visitor Center  at 2pm on Sunday, September 15th. The presentation is part of the History Alive! program of the West Virginia Humanities Council. 

During the early 1760s, Ostenaco moved in the highest circles of British colonial society, attending formal dinners at William and Mary College and in Williamsburg. In 1762 Ostenaco sailed to England in the select company of several Cherokee chiefs and British officers. The evening before his departure he made a farewell speech to his people.
ostenaco2
Among his listeners was a young Thomas Jefferson, who recorded his impression of the Cherokee leader: I knew much of the great Outassete (Ostenaco), the warrior and orator of the Cherokee. He was always the guest of my father on his journeys to and from Williamsburg. I was in his camp when he made his great farewell oration to his people the evening before he departed for England. The moon was in full splendour, and to her he seemed to address himself in his prayers for his own safety on the voyage and that of his people during his absence. His sounding voice, distinct articulation, animated action, and the solemn silence of his people at their several fires, filled me with awe and veneration, although I did not understand a single word he uttered.

While in London, Ostenaco drew crowds wherever he went, including a young Oliver Goldsmith, among the most famous of English poets, who waited for three hours to present him with a gift. The internationally famous painter Joshua Reynolds, portraitist to aristocrats and kings across Europe, painted Ostenaco’s portrait, and he was presented to King George III.

Ostenaco, during his lifetime, fought in numerous wars, including the French & Indian War, the Anglo-Cherokee War, the Chickamauga wars and the American Revolution. In the long course of these wars, he both fought alongside American colonists as an ally, and later against them as enemies. After his people were defeated by the Americans in 1776, he was among the leaders who led them westward as refugees into Tennessee.

~~~

The portrayal of Ostenaco is one of the many available character presentations offered through the West Virginia Humanities Council’s History Alive! program as a means of exploring history by interacting with noteworthy historical figures. These programs provide audiences with the opportunity to question those who have shaped our history.

Historical characterization is the vehicle for this program. Humanities scholars have carefully researched a variety of sources about the figures they portray such as journals, letters, official documents, speeches, autobiographies and research by other scholars in developing their presentation.

The West Virginia Humanities Council is a private, not-for-profit organization dedicated to providing educational programs in the humanities for all West Virginians. For over thirty years, the Council has been providing educational programs in the humanities across the state.

This West Virginia Humanities Council program is hosted by Pricketts Fort Memorial Foundation and is supported with additional financial assistance from the Office of the Secretary, West Virginia Department of Education and the Arts.

from the Bray Collection

This Saturday, September 14, Achaeology Family Day will come to Pricketts Fort. Bring the family and learn about the prehistory of West Virginia. Displays, demostrations, and hands-on activities for kids will be available throughout the day. Regular admission applies.

This even is made possible with the support of the Council for West Virginia Archaeology.

Visitor Center Displays:

~~ Artifacts from the Pricketts Fort reconstruction.
~~ The Sabo Collection
~~ The Bray Collection
~~ The Cain Collection
~~ Projectile point identification by Dave Cain
   (The public is encouraged to bring in their artifacts for identification)

Demonstrations:

~~ Flint knapping by Herk Conner
~~ Brain-tanned Hides by Ed Robey
~~ Net Making by Aaron Bosnick

Hands-on activites:

Pottery , Cornhusk Dolls

Programming at Pricketts Fort is supported through the generous support of the Marion County Commission, the Town of White Hall and the City of Pleasant Valley. The Pricketts Fort Memorial Foundation appreciates this ongoing support of the performing arts and the promotion of tourism events in our community.

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On this date, September 8 . . .

1756: The Destruction of Kittanning (continued).
~~~ From Colonel Armstrong’s report of September 14, written at Fort Littleton, to Governor Denny, describing the destruction of Kittanning on September 8:
~~~ “By this time it was break of Day, and the Men, having marched thirty Miles, were most asleep; the line being long, the Companies of the Rear were not yet brought over the last precipice. For these, some proper Hands were immediately dispatched, and the weary Soldiers, being roused to their Feet, a proper Number under sundry Officers were ordered to take the End of the Hill, at which we then lay, and march along the top of the said Hill at least one hundred perches, and so much further, it then being day light, as would carry them opposite the upper part or at least the body of the Town. For the lower part thereof and the Corn Field, presuming the Warriors were there, I kept rather the larger Number of the Men, promising to postpone the Attack in that part for eighteen or twenty Minutes, until the Detachment along the Hill should have time to advance to the place assigned them, in doing of which they were a little unfortunate. The Time being elapsed, the Attack was begun in the Corn Field, and the Men, with all Expedition possible, dispatched thro’ the several parts thereof; a party being also dispatched to the Houses, which were then discovered by the light of the Day. Captain Jacobs immediately gave the War-Whoop, and with sundry other Indians, as the English Prisoners afterwards told, cried the White Men were at last come, they would then have Scalps enough, but at the same time ordered their Squaws and Children to flee to the Woods.
~~~ “Our Men with great Eagerness passed thro’ and fired in the Corn Field, where they had several Returns from the Enemy, as they also had from the opposite side of the River. Presently after, a brisk fire began among the Houses, which, from the House of Captain Jacobs, was returned with a great deal of Resolution ; to which place I immediately repaired, and found that from the Advantage of the House and the Port Holes, sundry of our People were wounded, and some killed; and finding that returning the Fire upon the House was ineffectual, ordered the contiguous houses to be set on fire; which was performed by sundry of the Officers and Soldiers with a great deal of Activity, the Indians always firing whenever an object presented itself, and seldom missed of wounding or killing some of our People; From which House, in moving about to give the necessary orders and directions, I received a wound from a large Musket Ball in the Shoulder. Sundry persons during the action were ordered to tell the Indians to surrender themselves prisoners; but one of the Indians, in particular, answered and said he was a Man and would not be a Prisoner, upon which he was told in Indian he would be burnt. To this he answered he did not care for he would kill four or five before he died, and had we not desisted from exposing ourselves, they would have killed a great many more, they having a number of loaded Guns by them.
~~~ “As the fire began to approach and the Smoak grew thick, one of the Indian Fellows, to show his manhood, began to sing. A Squaw, in the same House, and at the same time, was heard to cry and make Noise, but for so doing was severely rebuked by the Men; but by and by the Fire being too hot for them, two Indian Fellows and a Squaw sprung out and made for the Corn Field, who were immediately shot down by our People then surrounding the House. It was thought Captain Jacobs tumbled himself out at a Garret or Cock Loft Window, at which he was shot, our Prisoners offering to be qualified to the powder horn and pouch there taken off him, which, they say, he had lately got from a French Officer in exchange for Lieutenant Armstrong’s Boots, which he carried from Fort Granville, where the Lieutenant was killed. The same Prisoners say they are perfectly assured of his Scalp, as no other Indians there wore their Hair in the same Manner. They also say they knew his Squaw’s Scalp by a particular bob; and also knew the Scalp of a young Indian called the King’s Son.
~~~ “Before this time, Captain Hugh Mercer, who early in the Action was wounded in the Arm, had been taken to the top of a Hill above the Town, to whom a number of Men and some of the Officers were gathered, from whence they had discovered some Indians cross the River and take the Hill with an intent, as they thought, to surround us and cut off our retreat, from whom I had sundry pressing Messages to leave the Houses and retreat to the Hill or we should all be cut off; but to this could by no means consent until all the Houses were set on fire. Tho’ our spreading upon the Hills appeared very necessary, yet did it prevent our Researches of the Corn Field and River side, by which means sundry Scalps were left behind, and doubtless some Squaws Children and English Prisoners that otherwise might have been got. During the burning of the Houses, which were near thirty in number, we were agreeably entertained with a quick succession of charged Guns gradually firing off as reached by the Fire, but much more so with the vast explosion of sundry Bags and large Cags of Gunpowder, wherewith almost every House abounded; the Prisoners afterwards informing that the Indians had frequently said they had a sufficient stock of ammunition for ten Years War with the English.
~~~ “With the roof of Captain Jacobs’ House, when the powder blew up, was thrown the Leg and Thigh of an Indian with a Child three or four years old, such a height that they appeared as nothing and fell in the adjacent Corn Field. There was also a great Quantity of Goods burnt, which the Indians had received in a present but ten days before, from the French. By this time I had proceeded to the Hill to have my wound tyed up and the Blood stopped, where the Prisoners, which in the Morning had come to our People, informed me that that very day two Battoas of French Men, with a large party of Delaware and French Indians, were to join Captain Jacobs at the Kittanning, and to set out early the next Morning to take Fort Shirley, or as they called it, George Croghan’s Fort, and that twenty-four Warriors who had lately come to the Town, were set out before them the Evening before, for what purpose they did not know, whether to prepare Meat, to spy the Fort, or to make an attack on some of our back inhabitants. Soon after, upon a little Reflection, we were convinced these Warriors were all at the Fire we had discovered the Night before, and began to doubt the fate of Lieutenant Hogg and his Party, from the Intelligence of the Prisoners.
~~~ “Our Provisions being scaffolded some thirty miles back, except what were in the Men’s Haversacks, which we left with the Horses and Blankets with Lieutanant Hogg and his Party, and a number of wounded People then on hand, by the advice of the Officers it was thought imprudent then to wait for the cutting down the Corn Field (which was before designed), but immediately to collect our Wounded and force our march back in the best manner we could, which we did by collecting a few Indian horses to carry off our wounded. From the apprehension of being waylaid (especially by some of the Woodsmen), it was difficult to keep the men together, our march for sundry miles not exceeding two miles an hour, which apprehensions were heightened by the attempts of a few Indians who for some time after the march fired upon each wing and immediately ran off, from whom we received no other Damage but one of our men’s being wounded thro’ both Legs. Captain Mercer, being wounded, was induced, as we have reason to believe, by some of his Men, to leave the main Body with his ensign, John Scott, and ten or twelve men, they being heard to tell him they were in great Danger, and that they could take him into the Road a nigh Way, is probably lost, there being yet no Account of him; the most of the Men come in detachment was sent back to bring him in, but could not find him, and upon the return of the detachment, it was generally reported he was seen with the above number of Men taking a different Road.
~~~ “Upon our return to the place where the Indian Fire had been discovered the Night before, we met with a Sergeant of Captain Mercer’s Company and two or three other of his Men who had deserted us that Morning, immediately after the action at Kittanning. These men, on running away, had met with Lieutenant Hogg, who lay wounded in two different parts of his Body by the Road side. He there told them of the fatal mistake of the Pilot, who had assured us there were but three Indians, at the most, at this Fire place, but when he came to attack them that Morning according to orders, he found a number considerably superior to his, and believes they killed and mortally wounded three of them the first fire, after which a warm engagement began, and continued for above an Hour, when three of his best men were killed and himself twice wounded; the residue fleeing off, he was obliged to squat in a thicket, where he might have laid securely until the main Body had come up, if this cowardly Sergeant and others that fled with him had not taken him away; they had marched but a short Space when four Indians appeared, upon which these deserters began to flee. The Lieutenant then, notwithstanding his wounds, as a brave Soldier, urging and commanding them to stand and fight, which they all refused. The Indians pursued, killing one Man and wounding the Lieutenant a third time through the Belly, of which he died in a few Hours; but he, having some time before been put on Horse back, rode some miles from the place of action. But this last attack of the Indians upon Lieutanant Hogg and the deserters was, by the before mentioned Sergeant, represented to us in quite a different light, he telling us that there were a far larger number of the Indians there than appeared to them, and that he and the Men with him had fought five Rounds; that he had there seen the Lieutenant and sundry others killed and scalped, and had also discovered a number of Indians throwing themselves before us, and insinuated a great deal of such Stuff, as threw us into much Confusion, so that the Officers had a great deal to do to keep the Men together, but could not prevail with them to collect what Horses and other Baggage that the Indians had left after their Conquest of Lieutenant Hogg and the Party under his command in the Morning, except a few of the Horses, which some of the bravest of the Men were prevailed on to collect; so that, from the mistake of the Pilot, who spied the Indians at the Fire, and the cowardice of the said Sergeant and other Deserters, we have sustained a considerable loss of our Horses and Baggage.
~~~ “It is impossible to ascertain the exact number of the Enemy killed in the Action, as some were destroyed by Fire and others in different parts of the Corn Field, but, upon a moderate Computation, it is generally believed there cannot be less than thirty or Forty killed and mortally wounded, as much Blood was found in sundry parts of the Corn Field, and Indians seen in several places crawl into the Weeds on their Hands and Feet, whom the Soldiers, in pursuit of others, then overlooked, expecting to find and scalp them afterwards; and also several killed and wounded in crossing the River. On beginning our March back, we had about a dozen of Scalps and eleven English Prisoners, but now find that four or five of the Scalps are missing, part of which were lost on the Road and part in possession of those Men who, with Captain Mercer, separated from the main Body, with whom also went four of the Prisoners, the other seven being now at this place [Fort Littleton], where we arrived on Sunday Night, not being ever separated or attacked thro’ our whole March by the Enemy, tho’ we expected it every Day. Upon the whole, had our Pilots understood the true situation of the town and the paths leading to it, so as to have posted us at a convenient place, where the disposition of the Men and the Duty assigned to them could have been performed with greater Advantage, we had, by divine Assistance, destroyed a much greater Number of the Enemy, recovered more Prisoners, and sustained less damage than what we at present have; but tho’ the Advantage gained over these, our Common Enemy, is far from being satisfactory to us, must we not despise the smallest degrees of Success that God has pleased to give, especially at a time of such general Calamity, when the attempts of our Enemys have been so prevalent and successful.”

~~~
Source:

Sipe, C. Hale. THE INDIAN WARS OF PENNSYLVANIA. (Telegraph Press, 1929).

Fort compadres

click to enlarge

On a hot, muggy day at the fort, Mary Rose the hen and Queenie the cat lounge on the stoop of the Meeting House, hoping to catch a fugitive breeze . . .

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On this date, September 7 . . .

1756: The Destruction of Kittanning (continued).
~~~ The scouts sent out by Colonel Armstrong to reconnoitre Kittaning (see September 6), return and report that the road is clear of the enemy, but, as it will be revealed later, they were not near enough to the town to learn its exact situation or the best way to approach it.

1758: Post’s First Mission to the Western Delawares, (continued).
~~~ (see September 4) Just before Post leaves Kuskuskies on September 7th, King Beaver and Shingas, referring to the fact that Governor Denny and Teedyuscung had entrusted Post to their brother, Pisquetomen, addresses their
brother as follows: “Brother, you told us that the Governor of Philadelphia and Teedyuscung took this man out of their bosoms, and put him into your bosom, that you should bring him here; and you have brought him here to us; and now we give him into your bosom, to bring him to the same place again, before the Governor; but do not let him quite loose; we shall rejoice when we shall see him here again.”
~~~ Post and his companions then hasten on their way over the mountains to Eastern Pennsylvania, bearing the peace belt of the Western Delawares.

1758: General Forbes’ Expedition Against Fort Duquesne: The March over the Mountains (continued).
~~~ (see Sept 1) Referring to his arrival at Ligonier, Colonel Bouquet will later write: “The day on which I arrived at the camp, which was the 7th [of September], it was reported to me that we were surrounded by parties of Indians, several soldiers having been scalped or made prisoners.” By this time, all his force has arrived. Here, on the banks of the Loyalhanna, Bouquet erects Fort Ligonier. He also erects the fortificaion known as “Breastwork Hill”, on Nine Mile Run, in what is now Unity Township, Westmoreland County, about ten miles west of Ligonier.
~~~ The work of cutting, hewing and blasting the road over the main range of the Allegheny Mountains and, particularly, the parallel range of the Laurel Hills to the westward, is prodigious. In many places, the road must be cut into the rock on the sides of steep declivities. As far as the eye can reach, the vast and primeval forest covers the mountain ranges and the valleys between. Forbes describes the mountain region through which the road
is cut as an “immense uninhabited wilderness, overgrown everywhere with trees and brushwood, so that nowhere can one see twenty yards.”

~~~
Source:

Sipe, C. Hale. THE INDIAN WARS OF PENNSYLVANIA. (Telegraph Press, 1929).

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On this date, September 6 . . .

1756: The Destruction of Kittanning (continued).
~~~ Colonel Armstrong’s army, having left the “Beaver Dams,” near Hollidaysburg two days earlier (see Sept 4), arrives at a point within fifty miles of Kittanning. From this point Armstrong sends out scouts to reconnoitre the famous Delaware town and get information as to the number of Indians there.

~~~
Source:

Sipe, C. Hale. THE INDIAN WARS OF PENNSYLVANIA. (Telegraph Press, 1929).

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On this date, September 4 . . .

1756: The Destruction of Kittanning (continued).
~~~ Colonel Armstrong’s army leaves the “Beaver Dams,” near Hollidaysburg (see Sept 3), and, following the Kittanning Indian Trail, arrive at a point within fifty miles of Kittanning two days later.

1758: Post’s First Mission to the Western Delawares, (continued).
~~~ At Kuskuskies (see Sept 3), On September 4th, two hundred French and Indians came to Kuskuskies on their way to Fort Duquesne. They stay all night. During the middle of the night. King Beaver’s daughter dies, “on which,” says Post, “a great many guns were fired in the town.”

~~~
Source:

Sipe, C. Hale. THE INDIAN WARS OF PENNSYLVANIA. (Telegraph Press, 1929).

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On this date, September 3 . . .

1756: The Destruction of Kittanning. (continued).
~~~ Colonel Armstrong’s army arrives at the “Beaver Dams,” near Hollidaysburg, where they join the advance party. (see August 29)

1758: Post’s First Mission to the Western Delawares, (continued).
~~~ (see August 27)   At Kuskuskies (see August 28), Christian Frederick Post has been holding many councils with Shingas, King Beaver, Pisquetomen, Delaware George and other leaders of the Western Delawares since his arrival on August 28.  In these councils, Shingas told him that the English and French were fighting for lands that belonged to neither, but to the Indians, and that this fighting was taking place “in the Land that God has given us.”  Said this Delaware chief, in an eloquent speech:  “The English intend to destroy us, and take our lands, but the land is ours, and not theirs . . . It is you that have begun the war . . . We love you more than you love us; for, when we take any prisoners from you, we treat them as our own children. We are poor, and we cloathe them as well as we can, though you see our children are as naked as at the first. By this you may see that our hearts are better than yours. . . Why do not you and the French fight in the old country, and on the sea? Why do you come to fight on our land? . . . You want to take the land from us by force, and settle it. The white people think we have no brains in our heads.” Shingas and his associate chiefs saw through the schemes and plans of both the English and the French.
~~~ From what Post told them and from what was promised in various conferences, the Western Delawares and Shawnees believed that, as soon as the English would succeed in driving the French from the Ohio and Allegheny valleys, they (the English) would withdraw east of the Allegheny Mountains and leave the western lands to the Indian. It was this understanding that caused Shingas, King Beaver, Delaware George and the other chiefs with whom Post held his
conferences, to accept the peace message of which he was the bearer.
~~~ Now, on September 3d, Post is given a peace belt of eight rows of wampum. It is delivered by King Beaver, Delaware George, Pisquetomen, John Hickman, Killbuck, Keckenepaulin and eight other chiefs, representing the three clans of the Delawares. 

1759: The erecting of Fort Pitt.
~~~ Having arrived at Pittsburgh in August, General John Stanwix, commanding the English forces occupying the Ohio and Allegheny, commences work on a permanent fortification near the site of the former Fort Duquesne.
~~~
Source:

Sipe, C. Hale. THE INDIAN WARS OF PENNSYLVANIA. (Telegraph Press, 1929).

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On this date, September 1 . . .

1758: General Forbes’ Expedition Against Fort Duquesne: The March over the Mountains.
~~~ Colonel Bouquet arrives at Bedford early in July, where he enlarges and strengthens the stockade already erected there, in 1756 (Fort Bedford), and constructs entrenchments and palisades. By the first of August, a large part of Bouquet’s forces was at work cutting the new road through the mountain forests towards Ligonier. His total forces at this time are about seventeen hundred men. By the sixteenth of August, Bouquet’s forces, woodcutters and troops, consist of thirty-nine hundred men, including two Virginia companies; and fourteen hundred are employed at this time in cutting the new road towards Ligonier, which place they reach about September 1st.

1818: Death of General Arthur St. Clair.
~~~ On August 30th, 1818, while driving down the Chestnut Ridge with a pony hitched to an old wagon, General St. Clair falls from the jolting vehicle upon the rough road, where Susan Stienbarger finds him lying unconscious as she is going out to gather berries. The pony stands nearby. The General is taken to his home, but never regains consciousness, dying the next day at the age of eighty-four years. He will be buried in the old Presbyterian cemetery at Greensburg, where the Masons will later erect a monument at his grave, bearing the statement that it has been “erected to supply the place of a nobler one due from his country.”
~~~ In 1791, St. Clair had succeeded Harmar as the senior general of the United States Army. He then personally led a punitive expedition involving two Regular Army regiments and some militia against Indian settlements near the headwaters of the Wabash River. On November 4, St Clair’s forces were routed in battle by a tribal confederation led by Miami Chief Little Turtle and Shawnee chief Blue Jacket. More than 600 soldiers and scores of women and children were killed in the battle, which has since borne the name “St. Clair’s Defeat”, also known as the “Battle of the Wabash”, the “Columbia Massacre,” or the “Battle of a Thousand Slain”. It remains the greatest defeat of the US Army by American Indians in history, with about 623 American soldiers killed in action, against about 50 American Indians killed.

~~~
Source:

Sipe, C. Hale. THE INDIAN WARS OF PENNSYLVANIA. (Telegraph Press, 1929).

Wikipedia, “Arthur St. Clair” (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_St._Clair).

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On this date, August 31 . . .

1756: The Death of George Croghan.
~~~ George Croghan dies at Passayunk, Pennsylvania, on August 31, 1782. His funeral is conducted at the Episcopal Church of St. Peter’s in Philadelphia, but the place of his burial remains unknown.
~~~ Croghan was born in Ireland and educated in Dublin. He came to America somewhere between the years 1740 and 1744. He engaged in the Indian trade and appears to have been first licensed as an Indian trader in Pennsylvania, in 1744. In 1746, Croghan was
located in Silver Spring Township, in the present county of Cumberland, a few miles west of Harris’Ferry, now Harrisburg. During the same year, he was made a counsellor of the Six Nations at Onondaga, according to his sworn statement; and in March, 1749, he was appointed by the Governor and Council of Pennsylvania one of the justices of the peace in Common Pleas for Lancaster County.
~~~ As early as the years 1746 and 1747, Croghan had gone as far as the southwestern border of Lake Erie in his trading expeditions. In 1748, he had a trading house at Logstown, which was made the headquarters of Weiser upon his visit to the Indians of that place, in the month of September, 1748. He had also branch trading establishments at the principal Indian towns in the valleys of the Ohio and Allegheny, one being on the northwestern side of the Allegheny River, at the mouth of Pine Creek, five or six miles
above the forks of the Ohio. From this base of operations and from Logstown, trading routes “spread out like the sticks of a fan.” One of these routes went up the Allegheny past Venango, (Franklin), where Croghan had a trading house and competed with John Frazer, a Pennsylvania trader from Paxtang, who for some years, had traded at Venango, maintaining both a trading house and gunsmith shop until he was driven off by the French.
~~~ Croghan’s abilities and influence among the Indians soon attracted the attention of Conrad Weiser, who, in 1747, recommended him to the Pennsylvania Authorities, and, in
this way, he entered the service of the Province.
~~~ Croghan’s part in Washington’s campaign consisted in furnishing the Virginia forces with flour and ammunition. On May 30th, 1754, he contracted with Governor Dinwiddle, at Winchester, Virginia, to transport to Redstone ten thousand pounds of flour by means
of packhorses. Much of the powder and lead used by Washington at Fort Necessity was furnished by Croghan and Captain William Trent, who was his partner and brother-in-law. ~~~ However, Croghan was so much delayed in furnishing flour that Washington’s forces suffered greatly from hunger in the latter days of the campaign.
~~~ The outbreak of the French and Indian War ruined Croghan’s prosperous trading business. He was brought to the verge of bankruptcy and threatened with imprisonment for debt. Then the Pennsylvania Assembly passed an act giving him immunity from arrest for ten years, in order that the Province might have the benefit of his services and influence among the Indians. To add to his financial troubles, the Irish traders, because most of them were Roman Catholics, fell under suspicion of acting as
spies for the French, and Croghan was unjustly suspicioned by many in authority. He was granted a captain’s commission to command the Indian allies during Braddock’s campaign, and was at Braddock’s defeat.
~~~ Early in 1756, Croghan resigned from the Pennsylvania service and went to New York, where his distant relative, Sir William Johnson, chose him deputy Indian agent, and appointed him to manage the Allegheny and Susquehanna tribes. From this time, he was engaged for several years in important dealings with the Western Indians, and had much to do in swaying them to the British interest and making possible the success of General Forbes, in 1758.
~~~ In 1763, Croghan went to England on private business, and was shipwrecked upon the coast of France. Upon his return to America in 1765, he was dispatched to Illinois, going by way of the Ohio River, and was taken prisoner near the mouth of the Wabash, and carried to the Indian towns upon that river. Here he not only secured his own release, but conducted negotiations putting an end to Pontiac’s War. He also took part in the Great Treaty of Fort Stanwix (Rome, New York), in 1768, and, as a reward, was given a grant of land in Cherry Valley, New York.
~~~ Shortly prior to this, however, Croghan had purchased a tract on the Allegheny, about four miles above the mouth of the Monongahela, where he entertained George Washington in 1770. When the Revolutionary War came on, it seems he embarked in the patriotic cause, and later was an object of suspicion; and then Pennsylvania proclaimed him a public enemy, and his place as Indian agent was conferred upon Colonel George Morgan. He continued, however, to reside in Pennsylvania — the scene of his early activ-
ities and the Colony which he rendered such signal service.
~~~ Croghan died at Passayunk on August 31, 1782.
~~~ Croghan’s Mohawk daughter became the third wife of the celebrated Mohawk Chief, Joseph Brant.

~~~
Source:

Sipe, C. Hale. THE INDIAN WARS OF PENNSYLVANIA. (Telegraph Press, 1929).

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On this date, August 30 . . .

1756: The Destruction of Kittanning.
~~~ In a letter written by Colonel John Armstrong, at Carlisle, on August 20th, he calls attention to the unprotected state of the Cumberland and Franklin County frontier, as follows: “Lyttleton, Shippensburg, and Carlisle (the last two not finished), are the only Forts now built that will, in my Opinion, be Serviceable to the public. McDowell’s or thereabouts is a necessary Post, but the present Fort not defencible. The Duties of the Harvest has not admitted me to finish Carlisle Fort with the Soldiers; it shou’d be done, and a Barrack erected within the Fort, otherwise the Soldiers cannot be so well governed, and may be absent or without the Gates at a time of the greatest necessity.”
~~~ On the very day Colonel Armstrong’s letter was written. Governor Morris was superseded by Governor William Denny — a change of governors at a most critical time —but, before Governor Denny’s arrival, Governor Morris, in response to the cries for help from the frontier, especially from Cumberland County, had arranged with Colonel Armstrong for an expedition against the Indian town of Kittanning. Colonel Armstrong had urged Governor Morris to give him permission to make this expedition, and Benjamin Franklin had earnestly advocated this plan of attacking this Indian stronghold from which Shingas, Captain Jacobs and King Beaver had led so many incursions into the Pennsylvania settlements.
~~~ Now, on August 30, Colonel Armstrong’s small army consists of about three hundred men, Scotch-Irish from the Cumberland Valley, divided into seven companies whose captains are himself, Hance Hamilton, Dr. Hugh Mercer, Edward Ward, Joseph Armstrong, John Potter and Rev. John Steel. Armstrong marchs from Fort Shirley (Shirleysburg, Huntingdon County), on this date, and will arrive at the “Beaver Dams,” near Hollidaysburg, on September 3d, where his forces will join the advance party.

~~~
Source:

Sipe, C. Hale. THE INDIAN WARS OF PENNSYLVANIA. (Telegraph Press, 1929).

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On this date, August 29 . . .

1757: The Eckerlin Tragedy.
~~~ A few years prior to the French and Indian War, the three Eckerlin (Eckerling) brothers, Samuel, Israel and Gabriel, who were Pennsylvania-German mystics, had settled near the mouth of a stream flowing into the Monongahela in the southeastern part of Green County, since known as Dunkard Creek from the fact that the Eckerlin brothers and their associates who formed the settlement, were German Baptists, or Dunkards. They had come from Ephrata, in Lancaster County. For several years the brothers lived in their new home in the western wilderness, in the midst of the Delaware Indians, and at peace with the world. Understanding the French language, they soon learned that the French were coming into the Ohio Valley and making preparations to assert their claim with force of arms; but the brothers gave no thought to the preparations for war on the part of the French, inasmuch as they (the brothers) felt that they were safe, being much beloved by the Indians. Samuel had a knowledge of medicine and surgery, and often ministered to his Indian neighbors in times of illness. On account of this, he was known as “Doctor Eckerlin.” As the Indian troubles increased, the friendly Delawares advised them to remove to a safer position on the Cheat River, as their settlement near the mouth of Dunkard Creek was directly on the line of the old Catawba War Trail. Accordingly the brothers removed to a place since called Dunker’s Bottom, near the mouth of the Cheat River, a few miles from their first settlement.
~~~ Now, sometime in late August, 1757, Samuel starts on one of his trading trips to Winchester, Virginia, after the harvest has been gathered. Upon his return, he is stopped at Port Pleasant, on the South Branch, where he is accused of being a spy and in confederacy with the Indians. In vain he protests his innocence, and it is not until he appeals to the Governor that he is allowed to start on his homeward journey, accompanied by a squad of soldiers, who have orders to follow him to his home on the Cheat River.
~~~ When Samuel and the soldiers are within a day’s march of the Dunker settlement, a party of Indians led by a French priest, attack the other brothers and their companions. Israel, who possesses absolute faith in divine protection, will neither defend himself nor attempt to escape, and he, Gabriel and a servant named Schilling are captured. The other members of the household are killed and scalped, and the cabins pilfered and burned. The two brothers and Schilling are taken to Fort Duquesne, where the Indians scalp Gabriel. Schilling is kept by the Indians as their slave, while Gabriel and Israel are later taken to Montreal, and thence to Quebec. What will eventually become of the two brothers, is never definitely known.

~~~
Source:

Sipe, C. Hale. THE INDIAN WARS OF PENNSYLVANIA. (Telegraph Press, 1929).

Making a corn mortar

Our first attempt at making a corn mortar, or hominy block, came to naught due to our stump possessing a punk center. This time around we were fortunate to find (a friend fished it out of the lagoon below the fort) a fine section of black locust– the preferred wood for long-lasting fence posts as the wood is very hard and durable. For that reason, it is also very resistant to gouging out, particularly when you are trying to work your way down against the end grain. Even with a chain saw, the going would be very tough.

We, of course, confined ourselves to methods and tools which would have been available on the eighteenth-century frontier. You can follow our progress below, through a succession of captioned photographs. The project was led by blacksmith John Boback, who had participated in the making of a corn mortar at Meadowcroft. John’s assistant was farmer BJ Omanson.

~ ~ ~~ ~ ~

The process begins with a robust fire in the firepit.

~ ~ ~~ ~ ~

A shovelful of embers, including a few small chunks of burning coal, are placed on the locust block.

~ ~ ~~ ~ ~

The fire on the block will be ineffectual unless constantly blasted with air. Both Indians and Europeans used the hollow stem of Joe Pye Weed for this purpose. We found it worked very well, provided the blowers have a good set of lungs and a fair amount of stamina. We took turns, and kept at it pretty constantly, not allowing the fire to die down. Here John Boback is seen getting the process started.

~ ~ ~~ ~ ~

As the embers burn down, they are replensihed by more embers from the firepit. Eventually, however, the unburnt remnants, especially from coal, build up and begin to smother the fire. The objective is to get the block itself burning, which requires constant blasting of air. Whenever the unburnt remnants begin to smother the burning block, they must be dumped.

~ ~ ~~ ~ ~

After dumping, as much charred wood as possible is removed by scraping with the end of a stout stick.

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After the first burning, a shield of mud is applied to control the burnt area and maintain a strong, thick collar around the hole.

~ ~ ~~ ~ ~

The shield extends down along the sides of the hole.

~ ~ ~~ ~ ~

And so the process of piling in new embers, blowing them until the block itself is burning, replenishing the embers as they are consumed, etc, continues.

~ ~ ~~ ~ ~

After a long session of constant blowing, the wood of the block itself is burning everywhere within the bowl, right up to the edge of the mud.

~ ~ ~~ ~ ~

Finally, after some 15-18 hours of burning, blowing, dumping and scraping, John dumps the block for a final time.

~ ~ ~~ ~ ~

He gives it a final scraping with the stick.

~ ~ ~~ ~ ~

Using a hammer and chisel, John evens out the sides of the bowl.

~ ~ ~~ ~ ~

The result is a bowl about 8.5 inches deep. We were hoping for 10 inches, but during the second to last burning a crevice opened up in the bottom of the bowl. A subsequent burning opened the crevice a little wider, so the decision was made to stop, lest the crevice become even wider. As it is, the crevice is still insignificant. Though the bowl is not quite as deep as hoped, it should be adequate. When pounding hard corn, the corn will bounce out of the bowl if it is too shallow, but 8.5 inches should be just deep enough.

~ ~ ~~ ~ ~

The final step is to use a clam shell to scrape the bowl clean and give it a hard polish. Once John has finished with this process, the result is a bowl that still looks somewhat black, but which is clean to the touch, and which shows the grain of wood through a dull polished sheen.

earlydaysinthebackcountry
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On this date, August 28 . . .

1758: Post’s First Mission to the Western Delawares, (continued).
~~~ (see August 27) On August 28th, Post and a party of twenty set out from Sauconk for Kuskuskies. Among the party is Shingas. “On the road,” Post will record later, “Shingas addressed himself to me, and asked if I did not think that, if he came to the English, they would hang him, as they had offered a great reward for his head. He spoke in a very soft and easy manner. I told him that was a great while ago ; it was all forgotten and wiped clean away; that the English would receive him very kindly.” At this point Shamokin Daniel interrupts, and tells Shingas not to believe Post, that the English have hired hundreds of Cherokees to kill the Delawares; and that both he (Daniel) and Post had seen an Indian woman lying dead in the road, murdered by the Cherokees. “Damn you,” exclaims Daniel, “why do not you (the English) and the French fight on the sea? You come here only to cheat the poor Indians, and take their land from them.” That night Post and his party arrive at Kuskuskies, where they will remain until September 7th.

~~~
Source:

Sipe, C. Hale. THE INDIAN WARS OF PENNSYLVANIA. (Telegraph Press, 1929).

earlydaysinthebackcountry
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On this date, August 27 . . .

1758: Post’s First Mission to the Western Delawares, (continued).
~~~ Realizing that it is too dangerous for Post to remain longer so near Fort Duquesne (see August 26), a party of his Indian friends leave with him for Sauconk before daylight, by a different trail than the one over which they had come. They pass through three Shawnee towns on the way, at all of which Post is well received, and arrive at Sauconk in the evening, where he is also gladly welcomed. In the Shawnee towns. Post see many Indians he became acquainted with at Wyoming.

~~~
Source:

Sipe, C. Hale. THE INDIAN WARS OF PENNSYLVANIA. (Telegraph Press, 1929).

earlydaysinthebackcountry
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On this date, August 26 . . .

1758: Post’s First Mission to the Western Delawares, (continued).
~~~ On the right bank of the Allegheny, under the guns of Fort Duquesne (see August 25), in the presence of French officers, who, with paper and pen, take down every word he speaks, and in the presence of three hundred Indians — Delawares, Shawnees, Mingoes and Ottawas, Christian Frederick Post, delivers the peace message of the Governor of Pennsylvania and the King of England to the assembled warriors, and pleads that they accept the message and withdraw from their allegiance with the French. After he ends his plea for peace, the French hold a council with their most devoted Indian allies, at Fort Duquesne, and urged that, inasmuch as the Delawares accompanying Post are wavering in their allegiance and inclining to the English interest, they should all be killed, to which proposal the Ottawas object and prevent its being carried into execution.

~~~
Source:

Sipe, C. Hale. THE INDIAN WARS OF PENNSYLVANIA. (Telegraph Press, 1929).

earlydaysinthebackcountry
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On this date, August 25 . . .

1758: Post’s First Mission to the Western Delawares, (continued).
~~~ Leaving Logstown on August 25th, Post’s party arrives on the right bank of the Allegheny, just opposite Fort Duquesne, in the afternoon. Here King Beaver introduces him to the Indians who have come over from the fort. All are glad to see him except an Old deaf Onondaga Indian who rises up and signified his displeasure. The old Indian will apologize, however, the next day, when some Delaware and Shawnee friends of Post give him a roll of tobacco.
~~~ Post’s situation is now most critical. French officers demand that he be taken to the fort, but his Indian friends will “not suffer him to be blinded and carried into the Fort.” The next day, the Indians warn him that the French have offered a reward for his scalp and that he should “not stir from the Fire.” “Accordingly,” Post records in his journal, “I stuck constantly as close to the fire as if I had been charm’d there.” The Indian to whom the French have offered a reward for Post’s scalp is Shamokin Daniel, one of his own party, and from this time onward, Post will have much trouble with this Delaware, to whom the French have given a string of wampum to kill Post.

~~~
Source:

Sipe, C. Hale. THE INDIAN WARS OF PENNSYLVANIA. (Telegraph Press, 1929).

earlydaysinthebackcountry
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On this date, August 24 . . .

1781: Colonel Lochry’s Expedition (continued) : (see August 20) On the forenoon of August 24th, the boats of Colonel Lochry’s expedition approach a level spot at the mouth of the creek which will become known as Lochry’s Run, the same being the dividing line between Ohio and Dearborn Counties, Indiana. It being absolutely necessary to land somewhere to feed the horses and hunt game for the half-famished soldiers, Lochry at once orders a landing. The boats are therefore beached, and the men and horses are soon on the northern shore.

Lochry's Defeat
~ ~ ~

~~~ No sooner have they landed than half a hundred muskets blaze from the woods that flank the level ground near the shore. Many of Lochry’s men are killed and others wounded. Still others hasten to the boats and push for the Kentucky shore.
~~~ Says Hassler in his Old Westmoreland: “Painted savages then appeared, shrieking and firing, and a fleet of canoes filled with other savages shot out from the Kentucky shore, completely cutting off the escape of Lochry’s men. The volunteers returned the fire for a few moments, but were entrapped, and Colonel Lochry offered to surrender. The fight ceased, the boats poled back to shore and the force landed the second time. Human blood was now mingled with that of the buffalo in the languidly flowing river. [The troops had shot a buffalo at the water's edge just before the attack]. …. The Westmoreland men found themselves the prisoners of Joseph Brant, the famous war chief of the Mohawks, with a large band of Iroquois, Shawnees, and Wyandots. George Girty, a brother of Simon, was in command of some of the Indians. The fierce Shawnees could not be controlled and began at once to kill their share of the prisoners. While Lochry sat on a log, a Shawnee warrior stepped behind him and sank a tomahawk into the Colonel’s skull, tearing off the scalp before life was gone. It was with great difficulty that Brant prevented the massacre of the men assigned to the Mohawks and Wyandots.”
~~~ In this ill-fated expedition, forty of Lochry’s force are slain, most of them after the surrender. The prisoners who are not immediately killed by the Indians are taken to Detroit and from there to Montreal, at which place a few will manage to escape, with the remainder released after the treaty of peace ending the Revolutionary War. Among the few who will return to Westmoreland County, are Richard Wallace, the quarter-master. Captain Thomas Stokely, Lieutenant Richard Fleming, John Guthrie, John Crawford, Lieutenant Isaac Anderson, Ensign James Hunter, Manasseh Coyle, Captain Robert Orr, and Lieutenant Samuel Craig, Jr.
~~~ Thus Colonel Lochry’s expedition ends in disaster. General George Rogers Clark’s expedition will also fail. By the time Clark arrives at Fort Nelson, opposite Louisville, Kentucky, so many of his force will have deserted that he will be unable to ccontinue his march into the Indian territory.

~~~
Source:

Sipe, C. Hale. THE INDIAN WARS OF PENNSYLVANIA. (Telegraph Press, 1929).

earlydaysinthebackcountry
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On this date, August 23 . . .

1758: Post’s First Mission to the Western Delawares, (continued).
~~~ Arriving at Logstown on the evening of August 23 (see August 20), Post meets with many English captives, and is permitted to shake hands with them — a thing he was not permitted to do at Kuskuskies where he saw Marie le Roy and Barbara Leininger, as well as other English captives. Post will remain in Logstown until August 25th.

General Richard Butler

General Richard Butler

1774: Logan’s Uprising, (continued): General Richard Butler, in his affidavit made before Arthur St. Clair, on August 23d, 1774, recites the cold-blooded murder of Chief Logan’s family, the murder of the Indians at the mouth of Captina Creek, the “horrid act in violation of the laws of friendship” in attacking the Shawnees under Cornstalk’s brother, the general base conduct of the unprincipled Connolly, and then adds:
~~~ “These facts, I think, was sufficient to bring on a war with a Christian instead of a Savage People, and I do declare it as my opinion that the Shawnees did not intend a war this Season, let their future intentions be what they might; and I do likewise declare that I am afraid, from the proceedings of the Chief of the White People in this part of the Country, that they will bring on a general war, as there is so little pains taken to restrain the common people whose prejudice leads them to greater lengths than ought to be shown by civilized people.”

~~~
Source:

Sipe, C. Hale. THE INDIAN WARS OF PENNSYLVANIA. (Telegraph Press, 1929).

earlydaysinthebackcountry
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On this date, August 20 . . .

1758: Post’s First Mission to the Western Delawares, (continued).
~~~ (see August 12). On August 20th, Christian Frederick Post, accompanied by twenty-five horsemen and fifteen footmen, travels to Sauconk at the mouth of the Beaver. Here he is not well received, being surrounded by Indians with drawn knives. Finally, when Post recognizes a few of the Indians and starts talking with them, their manner suddenly changes. Post goes from here to Logstown, at which place he will arrive on the evening of August 23d.

1781: Colonel Lochry’s Expedition (continued) : On August 20th, two of Captain Shannon’s men (see August 16 & 17) are picked up from the southern shore. They inform Colonel Lochry that Shannon’s men have been attacked by Indians on the Kentucky side of the river below the mouth of the Scioto. These two half-starved soldiers are the only survivors, a third soldier having been fatally wounded by stepping on his hunting knife while fleeing through the brush. Unhappily Captain Shannon was carrying a letter to General Clark, revealing the weakness and distressed condition of Lochry’s men. This letter fell into the hands of the Indians, who have been watching Lochry’s flotilla ever since it left Wheeling.

1794: The Battle of Fallen Timbers:
~~~ Prelude. The uprising of the Western Indians and the raids upon the Western Pennsylvania frontier continuing, and after the disgrace of Harmar’s and St. Clair’s defeats, there was a loud call loudly for a third expedition against the western tribes. President Washington chose General Wayne, “Mad Anthony,” the hero of Stony Point, to lead the expedition. When informed by Washington of his selection, Wayne is said to have replied: “I am the very man you want.” Wayne was a strict disciplinarian, and determined to avoid the faults which brought overwhelming and inglorious defeat upon his predecessors. He arrived in Pittsburgh in June, 1792, having been furnished with instructions from Washington in which it was stated that ” . . . another defeat would be irredeemably ruinous to the reputation of the Government.” His force was to consist of five thousand men, carefully drilled, and to be called “The Legion of the United States.” At Pittsburgh, Wayne erected Fort Fayette, where the Western National Bank now stands.
~~~ In December, 1792, Wayne’s legion was taken to the beautiful plain overlooking the Ohio, about twenty miles below Pittsburgh, where sham battles were fought and daily drills held. The place of this winter camp is known as Legionville to this day. While here, he was visited by the old Indian chiefs, Guyasuta and Cornplanter, then friends of the United States.
~~~ Breaking camp late in April, 1793, Wayne led his forces to Fort Washington (Cincinnati), where they were reinforced by regulars and mounted militia from Kentucky. It was so late in the season before all his forces were collected and supplies procured, that the offensive movement was delayed until the next spring. Late in the year, he moved to a new camp. Fort Greenville, in Darke County, Ohio, six miles north of Fort Jefferson.
~~~ During the winter, Wayne remained at Fort Greenville, swept the country between this place and the Miami villages, and took possession of the ground upon which St. Clair was defeated, erecting a fort there which he called Fort Recovery. Another detachment later marched to the scene of General Harmar’s defeat, and erected Fort Wayne, named in honor of the commander of the Legion, His force now consisted of thirty-six hundred troops.
~~~ In the meantime, in the spring of 1793, commissioners representing the United States met the western tribes in council, and proposed that, in consideration of the lands ceded by the treaty at Fort Harmar, the United States should pay the Indians “a large sum of money, or goods, besides a full yearly supply of such articles as they needed.” The chiefs replied that money was of no value to them. Said they: “You talk to us about concessions. It appears strange that you should expect any from us, who have only been defending our just rights against your invasions. We want peace. Restore to us our country, and we shall be enemies no longer.”
~~~ During the summer of 1794, Fort Recovery was garrisoned by a small detachment under Captain Gibson. On June 29th, Major William McMahon arrived at Fort Recovery with ninety riflemen and fifty dragoons. The next morning the fort was assailed by a large force of Indians and British and Detroit militia. They were repulsed with great slaughter. They renewed the attack the following morning, and were again repulsed. Then they retreated from the same field where St. Clair’s army had gone down to crushing defeat. The exact number of the Indian and British losses was never learned; but when the enemy returned to the British post, Fort Miami, they said that no man ever fought better than they did at Fort Recovery, and that they lost twice as many as at St. Clair’s defeat. One hundred and forty-two Americans were killed in the two attacks on Fort Recovery.
~~~~ However, the repulse of the Indian and British forces of more than fifteen hundred, showed the mettle of the Legion of the United States.
~~~ On July 26th, 1794, Wayne was joined at Fort Greenville by General Charles Scott, with sixteen hundred mounted volunteers from Kentucky. He then moved forward, skirmishing with bands of lurking Indians as he advanced. He marched with open files, to insure rapidity in forming a line or in extending the flanks, and drilled his men to load while marching. He always halted in the middle of the afternoon, encamping in a hollow square and surrounding his camp with a rampart of logs. Arriving at the site of the present village of Defiance, Ohio, the confluence of the Anglaize and Maumee Rivers, Wayne erected Fort Defiance, and made proposals of peace to the Indians. These were rejected contrary to the advice of Little Turtle, and in accordance with the advice of Blue Jacket. Said Little Turtle: “We have beaten the enemy twice under separate commanders. We cannot expect the same good fortune always to attend us. The Americans are now led by a chief who never sleeps. The night and day are alike to him, and during all the time that he has been marching upon our villages, notwithstanding the watchfulness of our young men, we have never been able to surprise him.” Indeed, so stealthy had been Wayne’s advance that the Indians nicknamed him “the Blacksnake.”

The Battle of Fallen Timbers

The Battle

On August 18th, Wayne continued his march and, now, on the morning of August 20th he has proceeded about five miles, to a point several miles south of the present town of Maumee, in Lucas County, Ohio, when his advance guard is heavily fired upon by Indians in concealment, and falls back. He forms his men into two lines where a tornado had blown down a number of trees in the woods -— a circumstance which will give the engagement the name of the “Battle of the Fallen Timbers”” The fallen trees make cavalry operations difficult, and afford a shelter for the two thousand Indians and Canadians who are posted among them in two lines.
~~~ Wayne’s militia charges impetuously with the bayonet, leaping over the logs and delivering a well-directed fire, while General Scott with his mounted volunteers, turns the right flank of the enemy by a circuitous movement, and Colonel Campbell, with his legionary cavalry, turns the enemy’s left flank. The Indians are driven at the point of the bayonet for more than two miles through the forest, and decisively beaten. Nine Wyandot chiefs lay dead on the field.
~~~ Blue Jacket, Little Turtle, Buckongahelas, Simon Girty, Alexander McKee and Matthew Elliott have lead the Indian forces in this battle.
~~~ Wayne, in his official report, states that the woods were strewn with the bodies of the Indians and their white allies, and that the latter were armed with British muskets. The Americans have lost thirty-three killed and one hundred wounded. The Indians have been driven under the guns of the British fort (Fort Miami) in the neighborhood, and so strong is the resentment of Wayne’s men against the English, that it is only with difficulty that they can be restrained from storming the fort. Indeed, many of the Kentucky troops advance within gunshot of the fort and hurl a volley of curses against the garrison. However, the gates of the fort are closed against the Indians. Captain Campbell, the British commandant, sends a message to Wayne, complaining of this insult and demanding by what authority Wayne’s troops have trespassed upon the precincts of the British garrison. Mad Anthony replies in terms little less polite than those of the Kentucky troops, informing Captain Campbell that his only chance of safety is silence and civility.
~~~ The day after the battle (Aug 21) General Wayne will ride up to the British
Fort Miami and cooly inspect the works while the British hold matches ready at their cannon. Then Wayne’s troops destroy the Indian cornfields, orchards, trading-houses, and stores. Soon after their crushing defeat, the various western tribes send delegations to General Wayne asking for peace. These are the Wyandots, the Shawnees, the Delawares, the Miamis, the Ojibwas, the Ottawas, the Potawatomies, the Weas, the Kickapoos, the Piankeshaws and the Kaskaskias.
~~~ In addition to breaking forever the power of the western tribes, one of the results of the Battle of the Fallen Timbers will be the surrender to the United States of Niagara, Detroit, Mackinac, Miami, and other posts hitherto held by the British, from which bases they had assisted and encouraged the Indians in their hostility against the Americans.

~~~  The significance of The Battle of Fallen Timbers to the American settlers in western Pennsylvania and Virginia, including the Pricketts and others along the Monongahela, is that from this time onward, the Indian threat was effectively at an end.

~~~
Source:

Sipe, C. Hale. THE INDIAN WARS OF PENNSYLVANIA. (Telegraph Press, 1929).

earlydaysinthebackcountry
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On this date, August 17 . . .

1781 Colonel Lochry’s Expedition (continued) : Two men who are sent out from Colonel Archibald Lochry’s force (see Aug 16) to hunt for game fail to return. It is likely they have been killed by Indians.

 

~~~
Source:

Sipe, C. Hale. THE INDIAN WARS OF PENNSYLVANIA. (Telegraph Press, 1929).

earlydaysinthebackcountry
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On this date, August 16 . . .

1781 Colonel Lochry’s Expedition (continued) : Colonel Archibald Lochry (see Aug 15), sends Captain Samuel Shannon and seven men in a small boat, to endeaver to overtake General George Rogers Clark and ask him to leave some provisions for the Westmoreland flotilla.

 

~~~
Source:

Sipe, C. Hale. THE INDIAN WARS OF PENNSYLVANIA. (Telegraph Press, 1929).

earlydaysinthebackcountry
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On this date, August 15 . . .

1781 Colonel Lochry’s Expedition (continued) : Colonel Archibald Lochry (see Aug 13), overtakes a large horse boat, which has been left for Lochry by General George Rogers Clark, to use for his horses. Once Lochry’s men have loaded the horses onto the boat, the expedition moves with increased speed.

 

~~~
Source:

Sipe, C. Hale. THE INDIAN WARS OF PENNSYLVANIA. (Telegraph Press, 1929).

earlydaysinthebackcountry
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On this date, August 13 . . .

1764: Bouquet’s Expedition of 1764, (continued): (see Aug 10) Colonel Henry Bouquet’s army, having marched from Carlisle, arrives at Fort Loudon, on August 13th. Bouquet will be detained here for some time.

Colonel Daniel Brodhead

Colonel Brodhead

1778: Westward March of the Eighth Pennsylvania Regiment, (continued): Having been detached from Washington’s army at Valley Forge and ordered to Fort Pitt on May 2, the Eighth Pennsylvania Regiment, under the command of Colonel Daniel Brodhead, leaves Carlisle on August 13, where it has been resting for the past week (see August 6), and proceeds westward, towards Bedford.

1781 Colonel Lochry’s Expedition (continued) : Colonel Archibald Lochry, detained at Wheeling for four days, while seven boats are being built (see August 8), embarks in the completed boats down the Ohio, with most of his soldiers.  His horses are conducted along the southern shore.

~~~
Source:

Sipe, C. Hale. THE INDIAN WARS OF PENNSYLVANIA. (Telegraph Press, 1929).

earlydaysinthebackcountry
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On this date, August 12 . . .

1758: Post’s First Mission to the Western Delawares, (continued).
~~~ After spending two days searching for the right trail to Kuskuskies (see Aug 10), Post and his companions reach an Indian town on Conoquenessing Creek, about fifteen miles from Kuskuskies, Post sends Pisquetomen on ahead to let the chiefs know that he is coming with a message from the Governor and people of Pennsylvania and the King of England. Shortly after Pisquetomen leaves, Post meets some Shawnees, who formerly lived at Wyoming. They recognize him and treat him very kindly.
~~~ Arriving at Kuskuskies that same day (August 12th), Post is kindly welcomed by King Beaver, and ten other chiefs salute him. They hold long conversations with Post around the council fire until midnight. Post finds himself among the leaders of the bloody raids into the Pennsylvania settlements — King Beaver, Keckenepaulin and Shingas, the last of whom is the terror of the frontier, for whose head Governor Denny, in 1756, set a price of two hundred pounds. Other chiefs with whom Post holds councils at Kuskuskies until August 20th, are Delaware George, who was his former disciple at the Moravian mission, and Killbuck. He makes known to all the chiefs the peace between Pennsylvania and the Eastern Delawares brought about at the treaty with Teedyuscung at Easton. After one of the councils, lasting far into the night, Delaware George is unable to sleep, so affected is he by the peace message of his former teacher and mentor. A French Captain and fifteen soldiers come to Kuskuskies to build houses for the Indians, and they use every art to get possession of Post, but to no avail. Even the bloody Shingas loves the gentle Moravian, and protects him.

1760: General Robert Monckton holds a council at Fort Pitt with King Beaver, Delaware George, Teedyuscung and many other chiefs of the Delawares, Shawnees, Six Nations, Ottawas, Wyandots and other tribes of the region between the Allegheny Mountains and the Mississippi River, in which he solemnly assures the assembled chiefs as follows: “I do assure all the Indian Nations that his Majesty has not sent me to deprive any of you of your lands and property.”

~~~
Source:

Sipe, C. Hale. THE INDIAN WARS OF PENNSYLVANIA. (Telgraph Press, 1929).

earlydaysinthebackcountry
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On this date, August 10 . . .

1758: Post’s First Mission to the Western Delawares, (continued).
~~~ On the 10th (see August 8), Post and his companions met a renegade English trader and an Indian, who told them they were then within twenty miles of Fort Duquesne. Thus having lost their way, they spent almost two days in trying to find the right trail to Kuskuskies.

1764: Bouquet’s Expedition of 1764, (continued): (see Aug 5) Colonel Henry Bouquet’s army marches from Carlisle, and arrives at Fort Loudon, on August 13.

 

~~~
Source:

Sipe, C. Hale. THE INDIAN WARS OF PENNSYLVANIA. (Telgraph Press, 1929).

earlydaysinthebackcountry
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On this date, August 8 . . .

1758: Post’s First Mission to the Western Delawares, (continued).
~~~ On the morning of the 8th (see August 7), Post and his companions, while hunting for lost horses, pass within ten yards of Fort Machault. They then set out for Kuskuskies, but proceed too far to the southward . . .

1781 Colonel Lochry’s Expedition (continued): Colonel Archibald Lochry (see August 3) and his little band of eighty-three militiamen reach the Ohio River at Wheeling, West Virginia, on August 8th, just a few hours after General George Rogers Clark’s forces have left that place.  Lochry will be detained at Wheeling for four days, while seven boats are being built.

~~~
Source:

Sipe, C. Hale. THE INDIAN WARS OF PENNSYLVANIA. (Telegraph Press, 1929).

earlydaysinthebackcountry
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On this date, August 7 . . .

1758: Post’s First Mission to the Western Delawares, (continued).
~~~ From Fort Augusta (see July 25), Christian Frederick Post, accompanied by Pisquetomen, Keekyuscung and Shamokin Daniel, follow the trail used by the Delawares in their first migration from the region of Sunbury to the Allegheny, as far as a point near the town of Punxsutawney in the southern part of Jefferson County. Here the trail branches, one branch leading in a north-western direction across Jefferson, Clarion and Venango Counties to Venango (Franklin), at which place they arrive on August 7th.

~~~
Source:

Sipe, C. Hale. THE INDIAN WARS OF PENNSYLVANIA. (Telgraph Press, 1929).

earlydaysinthebackcountry

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On this date, August 6 . . .

1763: The Battle of Bushy Run, continued. As the first streaks of dawn float over the verdant, forest-covered hills of Westmoreland, the harrowing yells of the Indians once more resound through the forest around Bouquet’s camp. Presently the assailants open a fire on Bouquet’s men from every side, leveling their rifles with deadly aim under cover of the trees and bushes. As on the previous day, the Indians attempt to break through the barricade around the troops and convoy, but again and again they are driven back by the troops expanding the circle and pursuing them, with fixed bayonets, into the forest.  Many of the horses, maddened by the terrible din, break away and dash into the underbrush. The Indians are become more and more confident of victory; while Bouquet’s troops, wearied by the march and battle of the preceding day and their sleepless night, and almost maddened by thirst,  begin to weaken under the strain, but still maintain an unbroken ring around the wounded and the convoy.

Battle of Bushy Run (second day)

Battle of Bushy Run (second day)

~~~  It is now about ten o’clock. Many of Bouquet’s best men have fallen since the renewal of the battle at dawn, without his being able to inflict any telling injury on the enemy. At this point, Bouquet conceives a plan to bring a large part of the assailants together and deliver them a telling blow.  His stratagem and its effect are described in the following letter which the Colonel writes  General Amherst that same day, after the battle :

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“Camp at Bushy Run, 6th Aug., 1763

“Sir: I had the honor to inform your Excellency in my letter of yesterday of our first engagement with the savages.
~~~ We took the post last night on the hill where our convoy halted, where the front was attacked, (a commodious piece of ground and just spacious enough for our purpose). There we encircled the whole and covered our wounded with flour bags.
~~~ In the morning the savages surrounded our camp, at the distance of 500 yards, and by shouting and yelping, quite round that extensive circumference, thought to have terrified us with their numbers. They attacked us early, and under favor of incessant fire, made several bold efforts to penetrate our camp, and though they failed in the attempt, our situation was not the less perplexing, having experienced that brisk attacks had little effect upon an enemy, who always gave way when pressed, and appeared again immediately. Our troops were, besides, extremely fatigued with the long march and as long action of the preceding day, and distressed to the last degree, by a total want of water, much more intolerable than the enemy’s fire.
~~~ Tied to our convoy, we could not lose sight of it without exposing it and our wounded to fall a prey to the savages, who pressed upon us, on every side, and to move it was impracticable, having lost many horses, and most of the drivers, stupefied by fear, hid themselves in the bushes, or were incapable of hearing or obeying orders. The savages growing every moment more audacious, it was thought proper still to increase their confidence by that means, if possible, to entice them to come close upon us, or to stand their ground when attacked. With this view, two companies of Light Infantry were ordered within the circle, and the troops on their right and left opened their files and filled up the space, that it might seem they were intended to cover the retreat. The Third Light Infantry company and the Grenadiers of the 42d, were ordered to support the two first companies.
~~~ This manoeuvre succeeded to our wish, for the few troops who took possession of the ground lately occupied by the two Light Infantry companies being brought in nearer to the centre of the circle, the barbarians mistaking these motions for a retreat, hurried headlong on, and advancing upon us, with the most daring intrepidity, galled us excessively with their heavy fire; but at the very moment that they felt certain of success, and thought themselves masters of the camp, Major Campbell, at the head of the first companies, sallied out from a part of the hill they could not observe, and fell upon their right flank. They resolutely returned the fire, but could not stand the irresistable shock of our men, who, rushing in among them, killed many of them and put the rest to flight. The orders sent to the other two companies were delivered so timely by Captain Bassett, and executed with such celerity and spirit, that the routed savages who happened that moment to run before their front, received the full fire when uncovered by the trees. The four companies did not give them time to load a second time, or even to look behind, but pursued them until they totally dispersed. The left of the savages, which had not been attacked, were kept in awe by the remains of our troops, posted on the brow of the hill for that purpose; nor durst they attempt to support or assist their right, but being witness to their defeat, followed their example and fled. Our brave men distained so much as to touch the dead body of a vanquished enemy that scarce a scalp was taken except by the rangers and pack-horse drivers.
~~~ The woods being now cleared and the pursuit over, the four companies took possession of a hill in our front, and as soon as litters could be made for the wounded, and the flour and everything destroyed, which, for want of horses, could not be carried, we marched without molestation to this camp. After the severe correction we had given the savages a few hours before, it was natural to suppose we should enjoy some rest, but we had hardly fixed our camp, when they fired upon us again. This was very provoking; however, the Light Infantry dispersed them before they could receive orders for that purpose. I hope we shall be no more disturbed, for, if we have another action, we shall hardly be able to carry our wounded.
~~~ The behavior of the troops on this occasion speaks for itself so strongly, that for me to attempt their eulogium would but detract from their merit.”

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After burying the dead on the hilltop near which the advance guard was first attacked and after making litters for the wounded, the army moves, late in the afternoon, less than a mile, to Bushy Run. Much of the flour and other supplies have to be destroyed,  as the killing of many horses and the flight of others have made it impossible to carry these supplies further. After resting at the camp at Bushy Run during the night of August 6th, the army proceeds slowly to Fort Pitt . . .

1778: Westward March of the Eighth Pennsylvania Regiment, (continued): At the end of July, the Eighth Pennsylvania at Muncy (see July 12) is relieved by the Eleventh Pennsylvania, whereupon Colonel Brodhead’s troops, Samuel Brady being with them, proceed to Carlisle, at which place they arrive on August 6th. The regiment will rest here for one week.

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Source:

Sipe, C. Hale. THE INDIAN WARS OF PENNSYLVANIA. ( Telgraph Press, 1929).